Mechanisms regulating energy metabolism by adiponectin in obesity and diabetes.

  title={Mechanisms regulating energy metabolism by adiponectin in obesity and diabetes.},
  author={Xiangping Fang and Gary Sweeney},
  journal={Biochemical Society transactions},
  volume={34 Pt 5},
  • X. Fang, G. Sweeney
  • Published 1 October 2006
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Biochemical Society transactions
Nutritional control of molecular events has become of great interest given the increased incidence of diet-induced obesity, and consequently Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes, in recent years. The altered adipose tissue content in obese individuals results in an altered profile of circulating adipokines, and here we focus on adiponectin, whose circulating levels decrease in obese individuals. Adiponectin is a 30 kDa protein but circulates primarily as hexameric, oligomeric and, to a… 

Figures from this paper

Circulating adiponectin and adiponectin receptor expression in skeletal muscle: effects of exercise
Key findings to date suggest that changes in expression of AdipoR isoforms in skeletal muscle, rather than circulating total adiponectin levels, may be of physiological importance.
Functional significance of skeletal muscle adiponectin production, changes in animal models of obesity and diabetes, and regulation by rosiglitazone treatment.
The ability of skeletal muscle cells to produce adiponectin, which can mediate autocrine metabolic effects, is shown, thus establishing adip onectin as a bona fide myokine.
The Role of Adiponectin in Endothelial Dysfunction and Hypertension
The effects of adiponectin on the cardiovascular system are believed to be partially mediated by the activation of 5’ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pathways, reducing endothelial cell apoptosis, promoting nitric oxide production, and decreasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) activity.
Adiponectin: A potential therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome.
Systemic adiponectin malfunction as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Current known information about Ad malfunction and deficiency pertaining to cardiovascular disease risk, as well as evidence supporting Ad resistance as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular injury are elaborate, providing insight about the future of Ad research and the protein's potential therapeutic benefits.
Leptin prevents the metabolic effects of adiponectin in L6 myotubes
The direct metabolic and insulin-sensitising effects of adiponectin were attenuated in the presence of leptin, and it was demonstrated that leptin attenuated binding of APPL1 to LKB1, a downstream target leading to AMPK phosphorylation.
Beneficial effects of dietary restriction in type 2 diabetic rats: the role of adipokines on inflammation and insulin resistance
It is demonstrated that dietary restriction in type 2 diabetes enhances adipose tissue metabolism leading to an improved skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and ameliorated inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscle.
The Role of Adiponectin in the Skin
The involvement of Ad in the biology of various types of cells in the skin, such as keratinocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, and immune cells are described and it is postulated that Ad could be employed as a therapeutic target to maintain skin homeostasis.
Obesity , adipose tissue types and adipocytokines ( Review of Articles )
This review of the recent findings of the types of adipose tissue and their role in controlling metabolism, focusing on its endocrine function describes the molecular actions and clinical significance of the some important adipocytokines.
Total and high molecular weight but not trimeric or hexameric forms of adiponectin correlate with markers of the metabolic syndrome and liver injury in Thai subjects.
HMW adiponectin, but not hexameric or trimeric, tracks with the metabolic correlates of total adiponECTin, and an independent inverse association exists between ALT and HMW adip onectin.


Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors.
It is shown that AdipoR1 and AdIPoR2 serve as receptors for globular and full-length adiponectin and mediate increased AMP-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha ligand activities, and glucose uptake and fatty-acid oxidation by adiponECTin.
Insulin/Foxo1 Pathway Regulates Expression Levels of Adiponectin Receptors and Adiponectin Sensitivity*
The expression of AdipoR1/R2 appears to be inversely regulated by insulin in physiological and pathophysiological states such as fasting/refeeding, insulin deficiency, and hyper-insulinemia models via the insulin/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Foxo1 pathway and is correlated with adiponectin sensitivity.
Regulation of adiponectin receptor gene expression in diabetic mice.
The results indicate that regulation of AdipoR1, but not that of AdIPoR2, may be involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in diabetic states.
Hyperglycemia- and hyperinsulinemia-induced alteration of adiponectin receptor expression and adiponectin effects in L6 myoblasts.
The results suggest that both hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia cause gAd resistance in rat skeletal muscle cells, however, hyperinsulainemia induces a switch toward increased fAd sensitivity in these cells.
Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects
The cloning of complementary DNAs encoding adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 by expression cloning supports the conclusion that they serve as receptors for globular and full-length adiponECTin, and that they mediate increased AMP kinase and PPAR-α ligand activities, as well as fatty-acid oxidation and glucose uptake by adiponectionin.
Complex Distribution, Not Absolute Amount of Adiponectin, Correlates with Thiazolidinedione-mediated Improvement in Insulin Sensitivity*
It is demonstrated that changes in SA in a number of type 2 diabetic cohorts serve as a quantitative indicator of improvements in insulin sensitivity obtained during TZD treatment, whereas changes in total serum adiponectin levels do not correlate well at the individual level.
Adiponectin receptors gene expression and insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic Mexican Americans with or without a family history of Type 2 diabetes
Gene expression profiling indicated that both isoforms of the adiponectin receptor play a role in the insulin-sensitising effect of adip onectin in human skeletal muscle.
Adiponectin: An adipokine linking adipocytes and type 2 diabetes in humans
Adipocyte-derived adiponectin is an insulin-sensitizing and antiatherosclerotic hormone, and replenishment of adiponectin in animal models ameliorated insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. In
Testosterone Selectively Reduces the High Molecular Weight Form of Adiponectin by Inhibiting Its Secretion from Adipocytes*
The selective inhibition of HMW adip onectin by testosterone might contribute to the sex dimorphism of adiponectin in terms of its oligomeric complex distribution and could partly explain why men have higher risk to insulin resistance and atherosclerosis than women.
Diet-induced insulin resistance in mice lacking adiponectin/ACRP30
The results indicate that adiponectin/ACRP30 deficiency and high TNF-α levels in KO mice reduced muscle FATP-1 mRNA and IRS-1-mediated insulin signaling, resulting in severe diet-induced insulin resistance.