Mechanisms of toxic action of Ag, ZnO and CuO nanoparticles to selected ecotoxicological test organisms and mammalian cells in vitro: a comparative review.

@article{Ivask2014MechanismsOT,
  title={Mechanisms of toxic action of Ag, ZnO and CuO nanoparticles to selected ecotoxicological test organisms and mammalian cells in vitro: a comparative review.},
  author={Angela Ivask and Katre Juganson and Olesja Bondarenko and Monika Mortimer and Villem Aruoja and Kaja Kasemets and Irina Blinova and Margit Heinlaan and Vera I Slaveykova and Anne Kahru},
  journal={Nanotoxicology},
  year={2014},
  volume={8 Suppl 1},
  pages={57-71}
}
Silver, ZnO and CuO nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used as biocides. There is however increasing evidence of their threat to "non-target" organisms. In such a context, the understanding of the toxicity mechanisms is crucial for both the design of more efficient nano-antimicrobials, i.e. for "toxic by design" and at the same time for the design of nanomaterials that are biologically and/or environmentally benign throughout their life-cycle (safe by design). This review provides a… CONTINUE READING