Mechanisms of salinity tolerance.

  title={Mechanisms of salinity tolerance.},
  author={Rana Munns and Mark A. Tester},
  journal={Annual review of plant biology},
The physiological and molecular mechanisms of tolerance to osmotic and ionic components of salinity stress are reviewed at the cellular, organ, and whole-plant level. Plant growth responds to salinity in two phases: a rapid, osmotic phase that inhibits growth of young leaves, and a slower, ionic phase that accelerates senescence of mature leaves. Plant adaptations to salinity are of three distinct types: osmotic stress tolerance, Na(+) or Cl() exclusion, and the tolerance of tissue to… 

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