IgG antibodies produced during subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy mediate inhibition of basophil activation via a mechanism involving both FcgammaRIIA and FcgammaRIIB.
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only treatment, which leads to a life-long tolerance against allergens due to restoration of normal immunity. The induction of a tolerant state in peripheral T cells represents an essential step in allergen-SIT. Peripheral T-cell tolerance is characterized mainly by suppressed proliferative and cytokine responses against the major allergens and its T-cell recognition sites. It is initiated by autocrine action of IL-10 and/or TGF-Beta, which are increasingly produced by the antigen-specific T Regulatory (T(Reg)) cells. Tolerized T cells can be reactivated to produce either of the distinct Th1 or Th2 cytokine patterns, thus directing allergen-SIT towards successful or unsuccessful treatment. T(Reg) cells directly or indirectly influence effector cells of allergic inflammation, such as mast cells, basophils and eosinophils. In addition, there is accumulating evidence that they may suppress IgE production and induce IgG4 and IgA production against allergens. By the application of the recent knowledge in mechanisms of allergen-SIT, more rational and safer approaches are awaiting in the future for the prevention and cure of allergic diseases.