Dual role for the unfolded protein response in the ovary: adaption and apoptosis
Calcium homeostasis of osteoblasts (OBs) has an important role in the physiology and pathology of bone tissue. In order to study the mechanisms of intracellular calcium homeostasis, MC3T3-E1 cells and Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with different concentrations of fluoride. Then, we examined intracellular-free calcium ion ([Ca2+]i) in MC3T3-E1 cells as well as mRNA and protein levels of Cav1.2, the main subunit of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs), Na+/Ca2+ exchange carriers (NCS), and plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase (PMCA), inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channels, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2b (SERCA2b)/ATP2A2 in vitro, and rat bone tissues in vivo. Our results showed that [Ca2+]i of fluoride-treated OBs increased in a concentration-dependent manner with an increase in the concentration of fluoride. We also found that the low dose of fluoride led to high expression levels of Cav1.2, NCS-1, and PMCA and low expression levels of IP3R and SERCA2b/ATP2A2, while the high dose of fluoride induced an increase in SERCA2b/ATP2A2 levels and decrease in Cav1.2, PMCA, NCS-1, and IP3R levels. These results demonstrate that calcium channels and calcium pumps of plasma and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes keep intracellular calcium homeostasis by regulating Cav1.2, NCS-1, PMCA, IP3R, and SERCA2b/ATP2A2 expression.