Mechanisms of BCG immunotherapy and its outlook for bladder cancer

@article{Pettenati2018MechanismsOB,
  title={Mechanisms of BCG immunotherapy and its outlook for bladder cancer},
  author={Caroline Pettenati and Molly A. Ingersoll},
  journal={Nature Reviews Urology},
  year={2018},
  volume={15},
  pages={615-625}
}
BCG immunotherapy is the gold-standard treatment for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer at high risk of recurrence or progression. Preclinical and clinical studies have revealed that a robust inflammatory response to BCG involves several steps: attachment of BCG; internalization of BCG into resident immune cells, normal cells, and tumour urothelial cells; BCG-mediated induction of innate immunity, which is orchestrated by a cellular and cytokine milieu; and BCG-mediated initiation of tumour… 
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