Mechanisms of Adaptation in a Predator-Prey Arms Race: TTX-Resistant Sodium Channels

@article{Geffeney2002MechanismsOA,
  title={Mechanisms of Adaptation in a Predator-Prey Arms Race: TTX-Resistant Sodium Channels},
  author={Shana L. Geffeney and Edmund D. Brodie and Peter C. Ruben and Edmund D. Brodie},
  journal={Science},
  year={2002},
  volume={297},
  pages={1336 - 1339}
}
Populations of the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis have evolved geographically variable resistance to tetrodotoxin (TTX) in a coevolutionary arms race with their toxic prey, newts of the genus Taricha. Here, we identify a physiological mechanism, the expression of TTX-resistant sodium channels in skeletal muscle, responsible for adaptive diversification in whole-animal resistance. Both individual and population differences in the ability of skeletal muscle fibers to function in the presence of… 
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TLDR
Novel changes in the molecular structure of a sodium channel expressed in snake skeletal muscle, tsNaV1.4, are identified that are responsible for differences in tetrodotoxin resistance among garter snake populations coevolving with toxic newts.
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The Chemical and Evolutionary Ecology of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) Toxicity in Terrestrial Vertebrates
  • C. Hanifin
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Marine drugs
  • 2010
TLDR
The taxonomic distribution and evolutionary ecology of TTX in amphibians is reviewed with some attention to the origin ofTTX present in these taxa.
Predators usurp prey defenses? Toxicokinetics of tetrodotoxin in common garter snakes after consumption of rough-skinned newts
TLDR
Accounting of the coevolutionary dynamic between snakes and newts must incorporate post-consumption affects of lingering TTX, as negative fitness consequences of intoxication during and after newt consumption may be balanced by co-opting the newts’ chemical defense for protection from the snakes’ own predators.
Evolutionary history of a complex adaptation: Tetrodotoxin resistance in salamanders
TLDR
The results suggest that exaptation has played a role in the evolution of the TTX‐bearing phenotype and provide empirical evidence that complex physiological adaptations can arise through the accumulation of beneficial mutations in the coding region of conserved proteins.
Sodium channel mutation leading to saxitoxin resistance in clams increases risk of PSP
TLDR
A molecular basis for inter-population variation in PSP resistance within a species is identified, consistent with genetic adaptation to PSTs, which might act as potent natural selection agents, leading to greater toxin resistance in clam populations and increased risk of PSP in humans.
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TLDR
The defensive chemical trait of a prey species, the newt Taricha granulosa, thought to be part of a coevolutionary arms race is quantified.
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TLDR
Evidence that the garter snake Thamnophis sirtalis has evolved resistance to tetrodotoxin (TTX) in response to the toxicity of the newt Taricha granulosa is presented and results suggest that the predator‐prey arms race analogy may be applicable to this system.
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TLDR
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TLDR
This paper presents the results of a major study of cross-breeding between a female European brown bear and a male polar bear and the evolution of the polar bear in the Logzkim Zoo.
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TLDR
Evidence of a trade‐off between two disparate functions—predatory and anti‐predatory ability—in a species of garter snake that has evolved resistance to the neurotoxin of its prey is presented.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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