Mechanisms for Flame Retardancy and Smoke suppression -A Review

  title={Mechanisms for Flame Retardancy and Smoke suppression -A Review},
  author={Joseph. Green},
  journal={Journal of Fire Sciences},
  pages={426 - 442}
  • Joseph. Green
  • Published 1 November 1996
  • Materials Science, Chemistry
  • Journal of Fire Sciences
The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy are reviewed. Halogens act in the vapor phase and phosphorus can act in either the vapor or condensed phase depending on the specific phos phorus compound and the chemical composition of the polymer. Halogen- antimony synergy is discussed. Convincing evidence is presented for bromine- phosphorus synergy in specific polymers. The mode of decomposition of polycarbonate is shown and the effect of salts of organic acids in… 
Phosphorus-based Flame Retardancy Mechanisms—Old Hat or a Starting Point for Future Development?
Flame retardancy is sensitive to modification of the flame retardant, the use of synergists/adjuvants, and changes to the polymeric material, so a detailed understanding facilitates the launch of tailored and targeted development.
A study of fire-retardant mechanisms in the gas phase by FTIR spectroscopy
This paper presents initial results of vapour-phase chemistry of volatile fire retardants, which may contain phosphorus, bromine or iron, in the presence of fuel from the burning material. Two
A review of non-halogenated flame retardant
Recent patent and literature indicate a growing interest in non-halogenated flame retardants are on the fast growing track due to the environmental consideration, although sometimes efficiency, lower
Overview of recent developments in the flame retardancy of polycarbonates
This paper presents an overview of the recent literature on flame retardancy of polycarbonate (PC) and polycarbonate-based resins. A brief survey of the major mechanisms of thermal decomposition of
Recent Developments in Different Techniques Used for the Flame Retardancy
To improve the flame retardancy of polymer blends, composites and nanocomposites for extending their application, recent developments in different techniques used for the flame retardancy are
The widespread applications of polymeric materials require the usage of conventional flame retardants based on halogen and phosphorous compounds to satisfy the fire safety regulatory standards.
Polymer Combustion Processes. 3. Flame Retardants for Polymeric Materials
The nature and function of flame retardants for polymeric materials is discussed in this review of polymer combustion processes. The phenomenon of combustion is explained, together with the nature of


Flame-retardant thermoplastics. I. Polyethylene–red phosphorus†
Red phosphorus is a highly effective flame retardant for polyolefins. The low additive levels of red phosphorus in polyethylene make it an attractive route to nonhalogen flame-retardant systems. The
Molecular Basis of Flame Inhibition.
  • J. Hastie
  • Chemistry
    Journal of research of the National Bureau of Standards. Section A, Physics and chemistry
  • 1973
The role played by inorganic chemical additives in fire retardancy and flame inhibition is considered. Particular attention is given to the molecular level aspects of commercially important systems
The Mechanism and Performance of Combustion Modified Flexible Foams in Small Scale Fire Tests
The subject of the behaviour of flexible polyurethane foams in a "fire situation" has always been a controversial issue. The introduction in March 1989 of legislation in the United Kingdom requiring
Synthesis and properties of 4-hydroxy-2,3,5,6-tetrabromobenzyl phosphonates and effects of their flame retardance on impact polystyrene
p-Cresol was converted into 2,3,5,6-tetrabromocresol by AlCl3 catalyst bromination, and then further brominated to 4-hydroxy-2,3,5,6-tetrabromobenzyl bromide (HTBBB) in benzene by light. HTBBB
Syntheses and properties of 4‐hydroxy‐3,5‐dibromobenzyl phosphonates and their flame‐retarding effects on ABS copolymer
Preparation de (dibromo-3,5 hydroxy-4) benzyl phosphonates par reaction de phosphites avec le bromure de dibromo-3,5 hydroxy-4 benzyle. Meilleures proprietes ignifugeantes des phosphonates sur l'ABS
Flame Retardant Polymeric Mat’ls
  • 1975
Paper INDE - 054 , 166 th Nat
  • 1973