Post-Transcriptional Regulation of KLF4 by High-Risk Human Papillomaviruses Is Necessary for the Differentiation-Dependent Viral Life Cycle
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agents of cervical cancer and are also associated with other genital malignancies, as well as an increasing number of head and neck cancers. HPVs have evolved their life cycle to contend with the different cell states found in the stratified epithelium. Initial infection and viral genome maintenance occurs in the proliferating basal cells of the stratified epithelium, where cellular replication machinery is abundant. However, the productive phase of the viral life cycle, including productive replication, late gene expression and virion production, occurs upon epithelial differentiation, in cells that normally exit the cell cycle. This review outlines how HPV interfaces with specific cellular signaling pathways and factors to provide a replication-competent environment in differentiating cells.