Mechanisms and Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

  title={Mechanisms and Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation},
  author={James Giordano and Marom Bikson and Emily S. Kappenman and V. Clark and H. Branch Coslett and Michael R. Hamblin and Roy H. Hamilton and Ryan Jankord and Walter J. Kozumbo and Richard McKinley and Michael A. Nitsche and J. Patrick Reilly and Jessica D. Richardson and Rachel Wurzman and Edward J. Calabrese},
The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory… 
Cognitive Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Healthy and Clinical Populations: An Overview.
The tDCS literature currently indicates that the effects of tDCS on cognitive measures are less robust and less predictable compared with the more consistent effects on motor outcomes and a notable difference in the consistency of single-session and longitudinal designs.
Regulation and Ethics of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation: A General View
Although tES is a safe and effective method with potential clinical and research utilities, the legal regulation criteria concerning the use different versions of tES are of critical relevance due to implications of brain stimulation for human health and well-being.
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Use in Warfighting: Benefits, Risks, and Future Prospects
The utility of tDCS is considered through analysis of the potential risks and benefits in the context of defence service personnel, and the future prospects of military tDCS use are explored, particularly in terms of addressing gaps in the literature.
transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Studies Open Database (tDCS-OD)
A system to summarize and consolidate methodological aspects of tDCS, concentrating on study design and the physical parameters of the stimulation is developed, and a community-driven, open access database is introduced.
Systematic Review on the Safety and Tolerability of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Children and Adolescents
The presently reviewed literature provides support for the safety, tolerability, and acceptability, of tDCS in youth for 1–20 sessions of 20 min up to 2 mA.
Mechanisms of Acute and After Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
This chapter will supply a state of the art overview of human and animal data exploring mechanisms of tDCS, from acute to after effects, and from effects at the single cell level to neuronal networks.
Tolerability and Blinding of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in People with Parkinson’s Disease: A Critical Review
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is accompanied by transient sensations (e.g., tingling, itching, burning), which may affect treatment outcomes or break the blinding of the study
Neurostimulation in Clinical and Sub-clinical Eating Disorders: A Systematic Update of the Literature
An update of the literature examining the effects of DBS, rTMS and tDCS on eating behaviours, body weight and associated symptoms in people with EDs and relevant analogue populations is provided.
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Among Technologies for Low-Intensity Transcranial Electrical Stimulation: Classification, History, and Terminology
Modern tDCS was developed following rigorous neuro-physiological testing in animals and humans, with behavioral and clinical trials based on specific, mechanistic hypotheses derived from this canonical work facilitated in serving as a scientific anchor for the broader (re)discovery of non-invasive electrical stimulation.


Clinical research with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and future directions
The contribution of interindividual factors to variability of response in transcranial direct current stimulation studies
The importance of baseline neuronal state and features, anatomy, age and the inherent variability in the injured brain are discussed, as well as how interindividual variability affects the results of motor-evoked potential testing with transcranial magnetic stimulation, which can lead to apparent variability in response to tDCS in motor studies.
Not all brains are created equal: the relevance of individual differences in responsiveness to transcranial electrical stimulation
Evidence on the large variability in individual cortical excitability and response to tES suggests that stimulation may affect individuals differently, depending on the subject’s age, gender, brain state, hormonal levels, and pre-existing regional excitability, which has crucial implications for neurorehabilitation and cognitive enhancement.
Electrode Positioning and Montage in Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
Different alternatives for electrode placement for tDCS clinical trials on pain are shown, discussing advantages and disadvantages of each method of stimulation.