Mechanisms and Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

@article{Giordano2017MechanismsAE,
  title={Mechanisms and Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation},
  author={James Giordano and Marom Bikson and Emily S. Kappenman and V. Clark and H. Branch Coslett and Michael R. Hamblin and Roy H. Hamilton and Ryan Jankord and Walter J. Kozumbo and Richard McKinley and Michael A. Nitsche and J. Patrick Reilly and Jessica D. Richardson and Rachel Wurzman and Edward J. Calabrese},
  journal={Dose-Response},
  year={2017},
  volume={15}
}
The US Air Force Office of Scientific Research convened a meeting of researchers in the fields of neuroscience, psychology, engineering, and medicine to discuss most pressing issues facing ongoing research in the field of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and related techniques. In this study, we present opinions prepared by participants of the meeting, focusing on the most promising areas of research, immediate and future goals for the field, and the potential for hormesis theory… 
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TLDR
The importance of baseline neuronal state and features, anatomy, age and the inherent variability in the injured brain are discussed, as well as how interindividual variability affects the results of motor-evoked potential testing with transcranial magnetic stimulation, which can lead to apparent variability in response to tDCS in motor studies.
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TLDR
Evidence on the large variability in individual cortical excitability and response to tES suggests that stimulation may affect individuals differently, depending on the subject’s age, gender, brain state, hormonal levels, and pre-existing regional excitability, which has crucial implications for neurorehabilitation and cognitive enhancement.
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TLDR
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