Mechanisms, Applications, and Challenges of Insect RNA Interference.

  title={Mechanisms, Applications, and Challenges of Insect RNA Interference.},
  author={Kun Yan Zhu and Subba Reddy Palli},
  journal={Annual review of entomology},
The RNA interference (RNAi) triggered by short/small interfering RNA (siRNA) was discovered in nematodes and found to function in most living organisms. RNAi has been widely used as a research tool to study gene functions and has shown great potential for the development of novel pest management strategies. RNAi is highly efficient and systemic in coleopterans but highly variable or inefficient in many other insects. Differences in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) degradation, cellular uptake, inter… 

Figures from this paper

Double-Strand RNA (dsRNA) Delivery Methods in Insects: Diaphorina citri.

A protocol for the synthetic production of dsRNA is described along with three methods for delivery that have been successful in one of the more problematic insects, Diaphorina citri.

dsRNA Uptake in Plant Pests and Pathogens: Insights into RNAi-Based Insect and Fungal Control Technology

If RNAi-based methods of control are to be used widely, it is critically important to understand the mechanisms underpinning dsRNA uptake, which will provide insight into the design and formulation of dsRNAs for improved delivery and provide clues into the development of potential host resistance to these technologies.

Insecticidal RNA interference, thinking beyond long dsRNA.

  • A. Flynt
  • Biology
    Pest management science
  • 2020
Further engineering of RNAi-based biopesticides may provide an opportunity to address dsRNA insensitivity seen in some pests, and basic delivery strategies used for ds RNA such as direct application or transgenic expression will translate well between RNAs transiting different RNAi pathways.

Comparison of strategies for enhancing RNA interference efficiency in Ostrinia nubilalis.

It is indicated that enhancing dsRNA stability is insufficient to improve RNAi efficiency in ECB and suggests the existence of additional, complex mechanisms contributing to low RNAi Efficiency in ECB.

Innate and adaptive resistance to RNAi: a major challenge and hurdle to the development of double stranded RNA-based pesticides

The physiological and adaptive factors responsible for reduced RNAi in insects that pose a major challenge in developing dsRNA- based pesticides are discussed.

Recent Advances in Engineered Nanoparticles for RNAi-Mediated Crop Protection Against Insect Pests

This review focuses on the design and synthesis of vectors (vehicles that are capable of carrying and protecting dsRNA) that successfully enhance mRNA degradation via the RNAi machinery.

Prospects for Using RNAi as Control for Ants

  • M. Allen
  • Biology
    Frontiers in Agronomy
  • 2021
The goal is to examine the potential application of RNAi to ant pests, especially invasive ants, which present distinct challenges with regard to delivery, targeting, efficacy, and risks.

Non-Target Effects of dsRNA Molecules in Hemipteran Insects

It is suggested that maximal dsRNA sequence identity is required for RNAi targeting of related pest species, and that heterologous dsRNAs at appropriate concentrations may not be a major risk to non-target sap-feeding hemipterans.

RNA Interference-Based Pesticides and Antiviral Agents: Microbial Overproduction Systems for Double-Stranded RNA for Applications in Agriculture and Aquaculture

Recent methods for microbial production of dsRNAs using representative microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and others) as host strains are reviewed.

Double-stranded RNAs targeting inhibitor of apoptosis gene show no significant cross-species activity.

Interestingly, even among closely related insects such as stink bugs, Nezara viridula, Halyomorpha halys, and Murgantia histrionica, with substantial sequence similarity among iap genes from these insects, no significant nontarget effects of dsIAP were observed under the conditions tested.



Molecular mechanisms influencing efficiency of RNA interference in insects.

Recent advances in dsRNA stability in physiological tissues, ds RNA internalization into cells, the composition and function of the core RNAi machinery, as well as small-interfering RNA/double-stranded RNA amplification and spreading mechanisms are reviewed to establish a global understanding of the obstacles impeding wider understanding of RNAi mechanisms in insects.

Emerging strategies for RNA interference (RNAi) applications in insects

This review has explored different forms of the RNAi inducers that are presently in use, and their applications for an effective and efficient fundamental and practical RNAi research with insects, and reviewed trends in next generation sequencing technologies.

RNA Interference Mechanisms and Applications in Plant Pathology.

The discovery of RNAi, canonical mechanisms, experimental and translational applications, and new RNA-based technologies of importance to plant pathology are reviewed.

RNAi Efficiency, Systemic Properties, and Novel Delivery Methods for Pest Insect Control: What We Know So Far

Important implications and possibilities to increase RNAi efficiency by delivery of dsRNA through non-transformative methods are explored, including delivery by symbionts, plant viruses, trunk injections, root soaking, and transplastomic plants.

Investigating Engineered Ribonucleoprotein Particles to Improve Oral RNAi Delivery in Crop Insect Pests

The role of engineered RNPs in improving dsRNA stability and cellular entry is demonstrated, representing a path toward the design of enhanced RNAi strategies in GM plants against crop insect pests.

Biological mechanisms determining the success of RNA interference in insects.

Double-stranded RNA binding protein, Staufen, is required for the initiation of RNAi in coleopteran insects

Experiments in two coleopteran insects showed the requirement of StaufenC for RNAi, especially for processing of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to small interfering RNA, which will help improve RNAi in noncoleoptera insects and manage RNAi resistance in colepteran insects.

The possible impact of persistent virus infection on the function of the RNAi machinery in insects: a hypothesis

The evidence whether persistent infection with RNA viruses could be a major factor that affects the response to exogenous dsRNA in insects is investigated.

RNA interference technology in crop protection against arthropod pests, pathogens and nematodes.

This review goes beyond the classical presentation of successful examples of RNAi in pest-insect control and comprehensively explore its potential for the control of plant pathogens, nematodes and mites, and to fight against diseases and parasites in beneficial insects.