Cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPEC): an overview of its in vitro and in vivo activity.
Cyclopentenyl cytosine (CPE-C), a carbocyclic analogue of cytidine, has preclinical antineoplastic activity against ara-C resistant murine leukemias and a broad spectrum of human tumor xenografts. CPE-C is a prodrug and requires intracellular phosphorylation to cyclopentenyl cytosine triphosphate (CPE-CTP) which depletes endogenous CTP pools. The initial step in this activation process is catalyzed by uridine/cytidine kinase. We studied the mechanism of resistance to CPE-C in a Molt-4 T-cell leukemia line made resistant to CPE-C (Molt-4R) by culturing it in the continuous presence of increasing concentrations of CPE-C. Using a tetrazolium based colorimetric assay to assess cytotoxicity, the IC90 for the parent Molt-4 cells (Molt-4WT) was 0.5 microM after a 24 hr drug exposure. In contrast, cytotoxicity was not observed at concentrations as high as 1 mM in the Molt-4R cells. Following a brief exposure to 1 microM CPE-C, parent drug could be detected intracellularly in the resistant and sensitive cell lines. However, CPE-CTP formation was reduced markedly in the resistant cell line. Measurement of the activity of anabolic and catabolic enzymes in the Molt-4WT and Molt-4R cells revealed equivalent activities of alkaline and acid phosphatases as well as cytidine and dCMP deaminase but there was a significant reduction in uridine/cytidine kinase activity in Molt-4R cells. Endogenous ribonucleotide pools and CPE-CTP pools were measured in the absence and presence of CPE-C. CTP pools were reduced markedly in Molt-4WT cells following exposure to CPE-C. However, CTP pools in Molt-4R cells exposed to 100 microM CPE-C were two times greater than in the untreated Molt-4WT cells. At high concentrations of CPE-C (10 and 100 microM), Molt-4R cells were able to generate amounts of CPE-CTP equivalent to that seen in Molt-4WT cells exposed to 1 microM CPE-C (a cytotoxic concentration of drug in Molt-4WT cells), but no cytotoxic effect was seen in Molt-4R cells. Therefore, in addition to decreased uridine/cytidine kinase activity, a second mechanism of resistance that is the result of alterations in CTP synthetase activity also appears to be operative. Elucidation of the mechanism of resistance in vitro may provide insight into the mechanism of action of the drug and potential mechanisms of resistance in vivo.