Mechanism of Surface Charging of High-Voltage Insulators in Vacuum

@article{Tourreil1973MechanismOS,
  title={Mechanism of Surface Charging of High-Voltage Insulators in Vacuum},
  author={C. H. de Tourreil and Krishan D. Srivastava},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation},
  year={1973},
  volume={EI-8},
  pages={17-21}
}
In vacuum, the surface of insulators becomes electrically charged when subjected to high-voltage stresses. The charging mechanism is described. A model simulating the charging shows that the surface charge densities are proportional to the applied voltage and depend on the secondary electron emission of the dielectric surface. It is also time dependent. Surface charges are shown to explain many results obtained in studies of insulator surface breakdown. 
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