Mechanism of Developmental Effects in Rats Caused by an N-Phenylimide Herbicide: Transient Fetal Anemia and Sequelae during Mid-to-Late Gestation.

@article{Kawamura2016MechanismOD,
  title={Mechanism of Developmental Effects in Rats Caused by an N-Phenylimide Herbicide: Transient Fetal Anemia and Sequelae during Mid-to-Late Gestation.},
  author={Satoshi Kawamura and Takafumi Yoshioka and Nobuaki Mito and Noriyuki Kishimoto and Masanao Nakaoka and Alan G. Fantel},
  journal={Birth defects research. Part B, Developmental and reproductive toxicology},
  year={2016},
  volume={107 1},
  pages={
          45-59
        }
}
BACKGROUND Rat developmental toxicity including embryolethality and teratogenicity (mainly ventricular septal defects [VSDs] and wavy ribs) was produced by an N-phenylimide herbicide that inhibits protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) common to chlorophyll and heme biosynthesis. Major characteristics of the developmental toxicity included species difference between rats and rabbits, compound-specific difference among structurally similar herbicides, and sensitive period. Protoporphyrin accumulation… 
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