Mechanism and application of genetic recombination in herpesviruses

  title={Mechanism and application of genetic recombination in herpesviruses},
  author={Kenichi Umene},
  journal={Reviews in Medical Virology},
  • K. Umene
  • Published 1 July 1999
  • Biology, Engineering
  • Reviews in Medical Virology
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV‐1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that latently infects sensory ganglia and encodes over 80 genes in a 152 kbp DNA genome. This well characterised virus provides a model for analysing genetic recombination in herpesviruses, a fundamental biological process by which new combinations of genetic materials are generated. The frequency of homologous recombination was estimated to be 0·0048–0·007 (0·48%–0·7%)/kb of the HSV‐1 genome, determined using physical markers… 

Rad51 and Rad52 Are Involved in Homologous Recombination of Replicating Herpes Simplex Virus DNA

The results indicate a specific role for Rad51 and Rad52 in recombination of replicating herpes simplex virus 1 DNA, and tandem repeats in the US7 gene remained stable upon serial passage, indicating a high fidelity of recombination in infected cells.

The role of DNA repair in herpesvirus pathogenesis.

Phylogenetic Analysis of Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Isolates Identified Three Genetic Groups and Recombinant Viruses

The sequence diversity of the complete genes coding for glycoproteins G (gG), I (gI), and E (gE), comprising 2.3% of the HSV-1 genome and located within the unique short (US) region, is determined for 28 clinical HSVs isolates inducing oral lesions, genital lesions, or encephalitis.

Endonuclease G, a Candidate Human Enzyme for the Initiation of Genomic Inversion in Herpes Simplex Type 1 Virus*

It is proposed that endonuclease G initiates thea sequence-mediated inversion of the L and S components during HSV-1 DNA replication.

G-quadruplexes may determine the landscape of recombination in HSV-1

A correlation between the HSV-1 recombination landscape and the distribution of G 4-motifs and G4-clusters is suggested, with possible implications for the evolution of DNA viruses.

Diversity of the a sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 developed during evolution.

The nucleotide sequences of the a sequences of 26 HSV-1 isolates were determined, and the DR4 stretches were classified into three groups, suggesting a close association of theDR4 stretch with HSv-1 diversification.

DNA genome of spontaneously occurring deletion mutants of herpes simplex virus type 1 lacking one copy of the inverted repeat sequences of the L component

Three non-engineered, spontaneously occurring herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutants that have a deletion of approximately 10 kbp were isolated and generated through recombination involving regions around the authentic cleavage site in the a sequence, suggesting an important role of the a sequences in the diversification of herpesviruses.

Divergence and Recombination of Clinical Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Isolates

It is suggested as a novel finding that homologous recombination is, as reported earlier for HSV-1 and varicella-zoster virus, a prominent feature in the evolution ofHSV-2.

Recombination in alphaherpesviruses

The analysis of concatemers from cells coinfected by two distinguishable alphaherpesviruses provides an efficient tool to study recombination without the bias introduced by invisible or non‐viable recombinant, and by dominance of a virus over recombinants.



Intermolecular recombination of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome analysed using two strains differing in restriction enzyme cleavage sites.

  • K. Umene
  • Biology
    The Journal of general virology
  • 1985
The finding of recombinants in an arrangement that minimized the number of crossover events suggested the participation of both of two arrangements of the L component of parental DNA (P or IS, and IL or ISL) in the generation of the recombinant.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA replication is specifically required for high-frequency homologous recombination between repeated sequences

Using an assay for recombination that measures deletion of a beta-galactosidase gene positioned between two directly repeated 350-bp sequences in plasmids transiently maintained in COS cells, we have

The a sequence is dispensable for isomerization of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome

These results validate the homologous recombination model of HSV-1 genome isomerization by directly demonstrating that the a sequence at the L-S junction is dispensable for this process and should be broadly applicable to studies of essential cis-acting elements in other large viral DNA molecules.

Direct repeats of the herpes simplex virus a sequence promote nonconservative homologous recombination that is not dependent on XPF/ERCC4

The results suggest that homologous recombination may be involved in the circularization of viral genomes, and demonstrate that amplification of recombination products supported by HSV-1 allows a direct examination of pathways for double-strand-break repair in human cells.

Analysis of intrastrain recombination in herpes simplex virus type 1 strain 17 and herpes simplex virus type 2 strain HG52 using restriction endonuclease sites as unselected markers and temperature-sensitive lesions as selected markers.

The analysis of unselected and selected recombinants using RE sites in conjunction with temperature-sensitive mutations is consistent with HSV being highly recombinogenic and parental and progeny molecules taking part in the process.

Requirement for double-strand breaks but not for specific DNA sequences in herpes simplex virus type 1 genome isomerization events

A quantitative transient recombination assay system was developed and used to examine the recombinogenic properties of a panel of alpha sequence mutants, finding that enhanced recombinogenicity disappeared when the element was flanked by regions of extensive sequence homology, particularly that of the large inverted repeats which flank the alpha sequence at its natural site in the HSV-1 genome.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 alkaline nuclease is required for efficient processing of viral DNA replication intermediates

P pulsed-field gel electrophoresis concludes that both wild-type and mutant DNAs exist in a complex, nonlinear form (possibly branched) during replication.

Novel rearrangements of herpes simplex virus DNA sequences resulting from duplication of a sequence within the unique region of the L component

Genomic rearrangements similar to those described here have been reported previously but only for herpes simplex virus insertion mutants containing an extra copy of the repetitive a sequence have not been reported for insertion mutants that contain duplications of herpessimplex virus DNA sequences from largely unique regions of the genome.