Mechanics of wing-assisted incline running (WAIR)

@article{Bundle2003MechanicsOW,
  title={Mechanics of wing-assisted incline running (WAIR)},
  author={Matthew W. Bundle and Kenneth P Dial},
  journal={Journal of Experimental Biology},
  year={2003},
  volume={206},
  pages={4553 - 4564}
}
  • M. Bundle, K. Dial
  • Published 15 December 2003
  • Biology
  • Journal of Experimental Biology
SUMMARY A recently discovered locomotor behavior, wing-assisted incline running (WAIR), allows fully volant animals to `run' up vertical obstacles. Such a task would appear to be especially formidable for bipeds, yet WAIR is used preferentially by ground-dwelling birds, specifically chukar partridge Alectoris chukar, to reach refugia. The basic locomotor mechanics that enable this behavior are not fully understood. For instance, are there functional differences at the level of the wing during… 

Aerodynamics of wing-assisted incline running in birds

TLDR
The results reveal for the first time that lift from the wings, rather than wing inertia or profile drag, is primarily responsible for accelerating the body toward the substrate during WAIR, and that partially developed wings, not yet capable of flight, can produce useful lift duringWAIR.

The broad range of contractile behaviour of the avian pectoralis: functional and evolutionary implications

TLDR
It is concluded that WAIR remains a useful extant model for the evolutionary transition from terrestrial to aerial locomotion in birds because work and power requirements from the pectoralis increase incrementally during WAIR and from WAIR to flight.

A 3-Dimensional Evaluation of Wing Movement in Ground Birds During Flap-Running and Level Flight: An Otogenetic Study

TLDR
The results suggest that the animal can execute different locomotor behaviors using a stereotypical wing beat and that the wing-shoulder joint permits a range of motion for the body orientation that is more plastic than previously appreciated.

Three-Dimensional, High-Resolution Skeletal Kinematics of the Avian Wing and Shoulder during Ascending Flapping Flight and Uphill Flap-Running

TLDR
3-D skeletal kinematics in chukars (Alectoris chukar) during WAIR (ascending with legs and wings) and ascending flight (AF, ascending with wings only) are quantified along comparable trajectories to improve the understanding of the form-functional relationship of the skeletal apparatus and joint morphology with a corresponding locomotor behavior.

Ontogeny of Flight Capacity and Pectoralis Function in a Precocial Ground Bird (Alectoris chukar).

TLDR
Novel measurements are presented of the development of pectoralis contractile behavior during the ontogenetic transition toward powered flight in chukar partridge to better understand how these patterns relate to the evolution of life-history strategy and locomotion.

A wing-assisted running robot and implications for avian flight evolution

TLDR
Low-amplitude wing flapping provides advantages in both cursorial and aerial locomotion in DASH+Wings, a small hexapedal winged robot that uses flapping wings to increase its locomotion capabilities.

Precocial development of locomotor performance in a ground-dwelling bird (Alectoris chukar): negotiating a three-dimensional terrestrial environment

TLDR
In a three-dimensional kinematic study of developing birds performing pre-flight flapping locomotor behaviours, wing-assisted incline running (WAIR) and a newly described behaviour, controlled flapping descent (CFD), three stages of locomotor ontogeny are defined in a model gallinaceous bird.

Effects of Slope upon Hind Limb Kinematics in Chukar Partridge (Alectoris chukar)

TLDR
A correlation between the steepness of the slope being traversed and the muscular activity required to acquire the specific body positions necessary to accomplish locomotion on the various, demanding slopes found in their habitats is suggested.

Experimental dynamics of wing assisted running for a bipedal ornithopter

  • K. PetersonR. Fearing
  • Engineering
    2011 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems
  • 2011
TLDR
Overall, the advantages provided by wings in terrestrial locomotion, coupled with aerial capabilities, allow BOLT to navigate complex three dimensional environments, switching between locomotion modes when necessary.

What Use Is Half a Wing in the Ecology and Evolution of Birds?

TLDR
It is argued that avian ancestors may have used WAIR as an evolutionary transition from bipedal locomotion to flapping flight, a recently described locomotor mode in which fully or even partially developed flapping forelimbs are recruited to increase hindlimb traction and escape performance.
...

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