Mechanical work in terrestrial locomotion: two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure.

@article{Cavagna1977MechanicalWI,
  title={Mechanical work in terrestrial locomotion: two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure.},
  author={G. Cavagna and N. Heglund and C. R. Taylor},
  journal={The American journal of physiology},
  year={1977},
  volume={233 5},
  pages={
          R243-61
        }
}
The work done during each step to lift and to reaccelerate (in the forward direction) and center of mass has been measured during locomotion in bipeds (rhea and turkey), quadrupeds (dogs, stump-tailed macaques, and ram), and hoppers (kangaroo and springhare). Walking, in all animals (as in man), involves an alternate transfer between gravitational-potential energy and kinetic energy within each stride (as takes place in a pendulum). This transfer is greatest at intermediate walking speeds and… Expand
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