Porcine spine finite element model: a complementary tool to experimental scoliosis fusionless instrumentation
The aim of the study was to determine intrinsic mechanical properties of the complete growth plate and its reserve, proliferative and hypertrophic zones. Growth plate disk samples from newborn swine's ulnae were tested using stress relaxation tests under unconfined compression. The Transversely Isotropic Biphasic Model (TIBPE) derived by [Cohen, B., Lai, W. M., Mow, V. C., 1998. A transversely isotropic biphasic model for unconfined compression of growth plate and chondroepiphysis. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, 120, pp. 491-496] was used to extract intrinsic mechanical properties using a four-parameter optimization procedure. Significant differences were found for the transverse permeability k(1), the Poisson's ratio in the transverse plane nu(21), the out-of-plane Poisson's ratio nu(31) and the out-of-plane Young's modulus E(3) between the reserve zone and the proliferative zone as well as between the reserve zone and the hypertrophic zone. The same trends were obtained for the Young's modulus in the transverse plane E(1), but significant differences were also found between the reserve zone and the complete growth plate. The proliferative and hypertrophic zones are half as stiff as the reserve zone along the compression axis and about three times less stiff than the reserve zone in the transverse plane. These two zones are also three times as permeable as the reserve zone in the radial direction. The mechanical behavior of the newborn porcine distal ulna growth plate is non-uniform along its thickness. The reserve zone, with its greater zonal component at that development stage, has noteworthy effects on the complete growth plate intrinsic mechanical properties. This study provides, for the very first time, an investigation of the intrinsic mechanical properties of the reserve, proliferative and hypertrophic zones of the growth plate.