Mechanical properties of paraformaldehyde-treated individual cells investigated by atomic force microscopy and scanning ion conductance microscopy

Abstract

BACKGROUND Cell fixation is an essential step to preserve cell samples for a wide range of biological assays involving histochemical and cytochemical analysis. Paraformaldehyde (PFA) has been widely used as a cross-linking fixation agent. It has been empirically recognized in a gold standard protocol that the PFA concentration for cell fixation, CPFA, is 4… (More)
DOI: 10.1186/s40580-017-0099-9

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