Learning Objectives: 1. To understand the hemodynamic events occurring during the different phases of the cardiac cycle and to be able to explain these both on the pressure-volume diagram and on curves of pressure and volume versus time. 2. To understand how the end-diastolic pressure volume relationship (EDPVR) and the end-systolic pressurevolume relationship (ESPVR) characterize ventricular diastolic and systolic properties, respectively. 3. To understand the concepts of contractility, preload, afterload, compliance. 4. To understand what Frank-Starling Curves are, and how they are influenced by ventricular afterload and contractility. 5. To understand how afterload resistance can be represented on the PV diagram using the Ea concept and to understand how Ea can be used in concert with the ESPVR to predict how cardiac performance varies with contractility, preload and afterload. 6. To understand the determinants of myocardial oxygen demand and regulation of myocardial blood flow.