Meat, morals, and masculinity

  title={Meat, morals, and masculinity},
  author={Matthew B. Ruby and Steven J. Heine},

Figures from this paper

Conflicted Omnivores: Meat, Morals, and Money
Conflicted omnivores are people who eat meat but feel bad about it. This study addresses the spending habits of omnivores in the context of their food decisions. There are three measures which each
Are vegans the same as vegetarians? The effect of diet on perceptions of masculinity
Eating Meat Makes You Sexy: Conformity to Dietary Gender Norms and Attractiveness
Past research has highlighted links between meat consumption and masculine gender role norms such that meat consumers are generally attributed more masculine traits than their vegetable-consuming
Vegetarianism, depression, and the five factor model of personality
Although vegetarians and semi-vegetarians were more open to new experiences, they were more neurotic and depressed than omnivores, and neither conscientiousness nor agreeableness varied as a function of dietary habits.
Underlying Differences Between Chinese Omnivores and Vegetarians in the Evaluations of Different Dietary Groups
Findings suggested that high levels of meat-eating rationalization predicted more favorable attitudes toward omnivores among both omnivore and vegetarian participants.
Psychological Processes Underlying an Omnivorous, Vegetarian, or Vegan Diet: Gender Role Self-Concept, Human Supremacy Beliefs, and Moral Disengagement from Meat
Most people consume meat regularly but simultaneously claim to be animal lovers, which should lead to a state of cognitive dissonance and cause distress. Against this backdrop, it is important to
The Psychology of Eating Animals
Most people both eat animals and care about animals. Research has begun to examine the psychological processes that allow people to negotiate this “meat paradox.” To understand the psychology of
“But I Don’t Eat that Much Meat”
As arguments become more pronounced that meat consumption harms the environment, public health, and nonhuman animals, meat-eaters should experience increased pressure to justify their behavior. The
Rationalizing meat consumption. The 4Ns


Values and Beliefs of Vegetarians and Omnivores
Compared with the full range of vegetarians and omnivores on right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, human values, and consumption values, the finding suggests that individuals consume meat and embrace its symbolism in ways consistent with their self-definitions.
Moral Overtones of Food: Judgments of Others Based on What they Eat
Previous research found that meal size can affect judgments of eaters' attractiveness and femininity. The present study investigates whether eating specific types of foods-namely, healthy,
Moralization and Becoming a Vegetarian: The Transformation of Preferences Into Values and the Recruitment of Disgust
We describe a rather common process that we call moralization, in which objects or activities that were previously morally neutral acquire a moral component. Moralization converts preferences into
Teenage Vegetarianism: Prevalence, Social and Cognitive Contexts
The findings show that teenage vegetarianism is primarily a female phenomenon, ranging in prevalence, according to definition, from 8 to 37% of women and 1 to 12% of men.
The Effects of Food and Gender on Interpersonal Perceptions
Male and female subjects provided ratings of personal traits, femininity and masculinity, and total caloric consumption for a female or a male target based on the type of diet she or he had allegedly
Do-Gooder Derogation
Two studies document do-gooder derogation (the putting down of morally motivated others), by studying the reactions of meat eaters to vegetarians. In Study 1, 47% of participants freely associated
Development of the Attitudes Toward Vegetarians Scale
Abstract Studies have explored the motivations behind the decision to become vegetarian, and have explored the well being of vegetarians. However, little research has focused on the social
Meat Is Good to Taboo: Dietary Proscriptions as a Product of the Interaction of Psychological Mechanisms and Social Processes
Comparing food taboos across 78 cultures, this paper demonstrates that meat, though a prized food, is also the principal target of proscriptions. Reviewing existing explanations of taboos, we find
Prejudgments of those who eat a “healthy” versus an “unhealthy” food for breakfast
A specific food's reputation for healthfulness can apparently impact the authors' judgments of the individuals who routinely eat the food, and women who eat pie were generally judged negatively.