Measuring the quality of a quantum reference frame: The relative entropy of frameness

@article{Gour2009MeasuringTQ,
  title={Measuring the quality of a quantum reference frame: The relative entropy of frameness},
  author={Gilad Gour and Iman Marvian and Robert W. Spekkens},
  journal={Physical Review A},
  year={2009},
  volume={80},
  pages={012307}
}
In the absence of a reference frame for transformations associated with group G, any quantum state that is noninvariant under the action of G may serve as a token of the missing reference frame. We here present a measure of the quality of such a token: the relative entropy of frameness. This is defined as the relative entropy distance between the state of interest and the nearest G-invariant state. Unlike the relative entropy of entanglement, this quantity is straightforward to calculate, and… 
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