Rework continues to affect both cost and schedule performance throughout the construction industry. The direct costs alone often tally to 5% of the total construction costs. Using the data obtained from 359 construction projects in the Construction Industry Institute database, this paper assesses the impacts of rework on construction cost performance for projects in various categories. In addition, it identifies the sources of this rework, permitting further analyses and the development of rework reduction initiatives. The results of this study establish that the impacts of rework differ according to project characteristics and that the sources of rework having the greatest impact are not significantly different among project categories. By recognizing the impacts of rework and its sources, the construction industry can reduce rework and ultimately improve project cost performance. DOI: 10.1061/ ASCE 0733-9364 2009 135:3 187 CE Database subject headings: Failures; Construction costs; Performance characteristics; Construction management; Construction industry; Measurement.