Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach.

@article{Davis1983MeasuringID,
  title={Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach.},
  author={Mark H. Davis},
  journal={Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
  year={1983},
  volume={44},
  pages={113-126}
}
  • Mark H. Davis
  • Published 1983
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
To facilitate a multidimensional approach to empathy the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) includes 4 subscales: Perspective-Taking (PT) Fantasy (FS) Empathic Concern (EC) and Personal Distress (PD). The aim of the present study was to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of these 4 subscales. Hypothesized relationships among the IRI subscales between the subscales and measures of other psychological constructs (social functioning self-esteem emotionality and sensitivity to… 

Relationships between Trait Empathy and Psychological Well-Being in Japanese University Students

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The purpose of this research was to develop and validate the Situational Empathy-Distress Scale(SEDS) which measures emotional reactions to a person in need in terms of the current emotional state as

Assessing Dispositional Empathy in Adults: A French Validation of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)

The goal of this study was to validate a French version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), a self-report questionnaire comprised of four subscales assessing affective (empathic concern and

Assessing physician empathy using the interpersonal reactivity index: A measurement model and cross-sectional analysis

Abstract Abstract We sought to improve measurement of the constructs of sympathy and empathy using samples of 114 physicians and 95 college undergraduates. Separately by group, a structural model was

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Empathy is an essential component of social interactions and may be related to personality characteristics. However, this issue has not been extensively examined in a Chinese sample. Students at six

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Empathy, the ability to infer and share others' affective states, plays a vital role in social interactions. However, no existing scale comprehensively assesses empathy's cognitive and affective

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TLDR
The Empathy (E) scale has been proposed as a theoretically and psychometrically more satisfying alternative to existing self-report measures of empathy and its four scales (facets) cover both components and reality statuses of empathy in pairwise combinations.

Empathy, Autistic Tendencies, and Systemizing Tendencies—Relationships Between Standard Self-Report Measures

TLDR
The results from this study illustrate how standard self-report measures of empathy, autistic tendencies, and systemizing tendencies are associated with each other in a large sample not diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder.

Relationships between Dimensions of Attachment and Empathy

Two studies explored the relationship between dimensions of attachment (closeness, trust, anxiety) and three forms of empathy (empathic concern, perspective taking, personal distress). In Study 1,

Does being empathic pay off?-Associations between performance-based measures of empathy and social adjustment in younger and older women.

TLDR
For almost all analyses, only empathic skills for positive (not for negative) affect were predictive of social adjustment, and the associations were comparable for younger and older women, which underline the role of valence in associations between empathy skills and social adjustment across the life span.
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