Measuring emotion continuously: Validity and reliability of the two-dimensional emotion-space

  title={Measuring emotion continuously: Validity and reliability of the two-dimensional emotion-space},
  author={Emery Schubert},
  journal={Australian Journal of Psychology},
  • Emery Schubert
  • Published 1 December 1999
  • Psychology
  • Australian Journal of Psychology
Abstract The validity and reliability of the two-dimensional emotion-space (2DES) was examined in three experiments. This computer-controlled instrument measures direct, self-reported emotion expressed by stimuli along two bipolar dimensions: happy/sad valence (VA) and aroused/sleepy (AR). In Experiment 1, responses to 24 words and five pictures of faces were collected from 28 participants. The intuitive nature of the 2DES was supported; the instrument had an average resolution of 21 for VA and… 
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