Measuring Socio-Economic GENDER Inequality: Toward an Alternative to the UNDP Gender-Related Development Index

  title={Measuring Socio-Economic GENDER Inequality: Toward an Alternative to the UNDP Gender-Related Development Index},
  author={A. Geske Dijkstra and Lucia C. Hanmer},
  journal={Feminist Economics},
  pages={41 - 75}
This paper assesses the United Nations Development Program’s (UNDP) Gender-Related Development Index (GDI). Although the GDI has increased attention on gender equality in human development, it suffers from several limitations. A major problem is that it conflates relative gender equality with absolute levels of human development and thus gives no information on comparative gender inequality among countries. Using the same indicators as the GDI, the paper constructs a Relative Status of Women… Expand
Reforming the Gender-Related Development Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure: Implementing Some Specific Proposals
Abstract Since their inception in 1995, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)'s Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) and Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) have been criticized onExpand
A Critical Assessment of the UNDP’s Gender Inequality Index
This study critically reviews the Gender Inequality Index (GII), the new gender-related index proposed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) in the 2010 Human Development Report, arguingExpand
How Gender Inequalities Hinder Development : Cross-Country Evidence
This paper assumes that gender inequality hinders economic and human development : a one standard deviation change in the Gender Inequality Index (GII) will increase long term income per capita byExpand
The Uses and Misuses of the Gender‐related Development Index and Gender Empowerment Measure: A Review of the Literature
The 1995 Human Development Report introduced two new measures of well‐being: the Gender‐Related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). The two indexes were created with theExpand
From Gender Inequality to Women's Quality-of-Life Index
Using Sen’s capability approach and an aggregation method based on the totally fuzzy analysis, this article attempts to move beyond the main criticisms of the Gender-related Development Index (GDI)Expand
On the Measurement of Gender Equality and Gender‐related Development Levels
The aim of this paper is, first, to present an overall development index corrected for gender differences — the ‘Multidimensional Gender‐related Development Index’ (MGDI) — which can be viewed as anExpand
The Multidimensional Gender Inequalities Index (MGII): A Descriptive Analysis of Gender Inequalities Using MCA
This paper constructs a weighted measure of the multidimensional concept of gender inequality: the Multidimensional Gender Inequality Index (MGII). Multiple Correspondence Analysis is used to rankExpand
Are UNDP Indices Appropriate to Capture Gender Inequalities in Europe?
This study critically investigates the suitability of United Nations’ composite indices and other related measures—among which the Gender Inequality Index just released in 2010—to capture genderExpand
The Measurement of Socio‐economic Gender Inequality Revisited
The measurement of socio-economic gender inequality has not received much attention from the development literature despite its great relevance and important policy implications. In this article weExpand
Reforming the Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM): Some Specific Proposals
In 2005 and 2006, the Human Development Report Office undertook a review of UNDP’s gender-related indicators, particularly the Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender EmpowermentExpand


Gender Inequality in Human Development: Theories and Measurement
This background note prepared for the 1995 version of the UN Development Programs "Human Development Report" 1) explores and makes specific recommendations about a methodology for developing aExpand
Gender Equity and Economic Efficiency in Adjustment Programmes
Most writing on gender and adjustment points out the disproportionate negative impact on women of the new policies. There are good reasons why UNICEF sounded the alarm bells on the welfare of womenExpand
Women's Work, Education, and Family Welfare in Peru
This report examines ways of improving women's productivity and education and the consequences for development in Peru. It finds that women account for about 39 percent of family income in Peru. TheyExpand
Gender and Economics: A European Perspective
Gender and Economics: A European Perspective provides an introduction to gender studies in economics. This is a rapidly expanding field in which textbooks are urgently necessary. The contributorsExpand
What difference does gender make? Rethinking peasant studies
This article argues that gender analysis has challenged and enriched many of the standard assumptions and concepts utilized in the analysis of Third World peasantries. Drawing primarily on theExpand
Public finance from a gender perspective
Abstract Conventional macroeconomic policy design has ignored the way in which gender relations result in distortions caused by biased and absent markets. Cutbacks in public expenditure have tendedExpand
Measuring development? The UNDP's human development index
This paper critically examines the UNDP's Human Development Index (HDI). We conclude that its treatment of income is inappropriate; the lack of year-to-year comparability is undesirable; it is robustExpand
Lightening the Load on Rural Women: How Appropriate is the Technology Directed Towards Africa?
In sub-Saharan Africa, rural women, whose agricultural and household mainte nance activities are recognized to be specifically arduous, are considered the main beneficiaries of labor-saving devices.Expand
Female education and adjustment programs: A crosscountry statistical analysis
Abstract In countries that have undertaken World Bank-supported adjustment programs, a slowdown in the increase in average female combined first- and second-level gross school enrollment rates isExpand
Husbands at home : the domestic economy in a post-industrial society
List of Figures. List of Tables. Acknowledgements. PART 1: HOUSEHOLD WORK STRATEGIES IN A DE-INDUSTRIALISING ECONOMY Setting the Scene 1: The Wearside Empirical Study Chapter 1: Introduction: TheExpand