Measuring Retrograde Autobiographical Amnesia Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: Historical Perspective and Current Issues

  title={Measuring Retrograde Autobiographical Amnesia Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: Historical Perspective and Current Issues},
  author={Maria Semkovska and Declan M. McLoughlin},
  journal={The Journal of ECT},
Abstract Retrograde amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a major concern for both patients and clinicians. In contemporary ECT research, retrograde autobiographical amnesia (RAA) is commonly measured with instruments assessing autobiographical memory (AM) consistency over time. However, normal AM recall loses in consistency with the passage of time, and time has a differential effect on stability of personal memories. In addition, experiencing depression is associated with a… 

Autobiographical Memory and Electroconvulsive Therapy: Final Thoughts on the Bathwater.

Semkovska and McLoughlin invoke pseudoscientific rigor and insist that these instruments are insufficiently validated as measures of retrograde amnesia for autobiographical information; and consequently, their results cannot be accepted.

Autobiographical memory and electroconvulsive therapy: do not throw out the baby.

It is shown that Semkovska and McLoughlin's critique is factually incorrect, and it is inaccurate and inadvisable to continue to deny that ECT can exert long-term adverse effects in this domain.

Unravelling Autobiographical Retrograde Amnesia Following Bitemporal Electroconvulsive Therapy: Effect of Treatment versus Effect of Time

Objective: To reliably quantify the autobiographical retrograde amnesia directly attributable to the effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) independent from normal and depression-associated

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Retrograde autobiographical amnesia after electroconvulsive therapy: on the difficulty of finding the baby and clearing murky bathwater.

Dr Sackeim has provided a nice account of pioneering work on the effects of electrode placement, dosage, and pulse width on ECT outcomes and the CUAMI and its short form (CUAMI-SF) along with various studies in the ensuing 2 decades in which he has applied these instruments to assess retrograde amnesia.

Do Not Throw Out the Baby

Retrograde amnesia for autobiographical information is the most critical adverse effect of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Much, if not most, modern research demonstrating long-term autobiographical

Development of an autobiographical memory test for older electroconvulsive therapy candidates

The proposed test may be particularly sensitive to autobiographical memory loss in older people undergoing ECT because it uses recent personal memories, which are relatively commonly experienced in the older depressed population.

Cognitive side-effects of electroconvulsive therapy: what are they, how to monitor them and what to tell patients

Clinicians are provided with clinically useful guidelines to aid clinicians in informing patients regarding the cognitive side-effects of ECT and in monitoring these during a course of EECT, using complex data.

Long-term subjective memory after electroconvulsive therapy

Although subjective memory improved more often than it worsened when assessed before and after ECT, a majority of patients reported that ECT had negative effects on their memory when retrospectively asked how ECTHad affected it.

Predicting Retrograde Autobiographical Memory Changes Following Electroconvulsive Therapy: Relationships between Individual, Treatment, and Early Clinical Factors

The utility of measuring time to reorientation early during the electroconvulsive therapy treatment course as a predictor of greater retrograde amnesia and the importance of assessing baseline cognitive status for identifying patients at greater risk for developing later side effects are confirmed.



The Effect of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Autobiographical Memory: A Systematic Review

Evidence suggests that autobiographical memory impairment does occur as a result of ECT and further research is required to determine memory loss associated with ECT, controlling for the direct effects of the depressive state.

The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on memory of autobiographical and public events.

The amnestic effects of ECT are greatest and most persistent for knowledge about the world (impersonal memory,) compared with knowledgeabout the self (personal memory), for recent compared with distinctly remote events, and for less salient events.

Retrograde amnesia after electroconvulsive therapy: a temporary effect?

Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression

Field perspective deficit for positive memories characterizes autobiographical memory in euthymic depressed patients.

Predictors of retrograde amnesia following ECT.

Patients who manifest global cognitive impairment before treatment and patients who experience prolonged disorientation in the acute postictal period may be the most vulnerable to persistent retrograde amnesia for autobiographical information.

The autobiographical memory interview: a new assessment of autobiographical and personal semantic memory in amnesic patients.

The findings indicate that autobiographical and personal semantic memory show a consistent pattern of impairment, when a comparison is made which controls for the age of the memories and the subject's own past experience.