Measuring Compactness and the Role of a Compactness Standard in a Test for Partisan and Racial Gerrymandering

@article{Niemi1990MeasuringCA,
  title={Measuring Compactness and the Role of a Compactness Standard in a Test for Partisan and Racial Gerrymandering},
  author={R. Niemi and B. Grofman and C. Carlucci and Thomas B. Hofeller},
  journal={The Journal of Politics},
  year={1990},
  volume={52},
  pages={1155 - 1181}
}
As we move into the 1990s, compactness of legislative districts is likely to take on greater importance because of its relevance to questions of racial and partisan discrimination. We show that at least two distinct components of shape--dispersion and perimeter length--are necessary elements of any reasonable compactness measure and that compactness may be based on geography or on population. An appropriate strategy, therefore, is simultaneously to consider multiple measures that collectively… Expand
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