In this paper, the authors describe the development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. The knowledge test subscales provide unique and significant information about knowledge in preventive cardiology and can discriminate among groups differing in level of instruction and expertise in preventive cardiology. The attitude survey provides information about two attitude factors: cardiovascular disease prevention and cardiovascular disease research priorities. In the study reported here, attitudes appeared not to differ among groups of students with different preventive cardiology instructional levels and expertise. Both instruments were demonstrated to be useful measures of medical students' knowledge and attitudes concerning preventive cardiology educational programs.