Measurements of normal joint angles by goniometry in calves.

@article{irin2014MeasurementsON,
  title={Measurements of normal joint angles by goniometry in calves.},
  author={O Seng{\"o}z Şirin and M Timuçin Celik and Cihan Akgul Ozmen and Sirri Avki},
  journal={Veterinary and comparative orthopaedics and traumatology : V.C.O.T},
  year={2014},
  volume={27 2},
  pages={
          120-3
        }
}
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to establish normal reference values of the forelimb and hindlimb joint angles in normal Holstein calves. METHODS Thirty clinically normal Holstein calves that were free of any detectable musculoskeletal abnormalities were included in the study. A standard transparent plastic goniometer was used to measure maximum flexion, maximum extension, and range-of-motion of the shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle, and tarsal joints. The goniometric measurements were… CONTINUE READING

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