Measurement of the depth of maximum of extensive air showers above 10{18} eV.

@article{Abraham2010MeasurementOT,
  title={Measurement of the depth of maximum of extensive air showers above 10\{18\} eV.},
  author={Jitty Abraham and Pedro Abreu and Michel Aglietta and Eungho Ahn and Denis Allard and I. Allekotte and James Allen and Jaime Alvarez-Mu{\~n}iz and Maurice Ambrosio and Luis Alfredo Anchordoqui and Sofia Andringa and T. Anti{\vc}i{\'c} and Alessandro Anzalone and Carla Aramo and E. Arganda and Katsushi Arisaka and Fernando Arqueros and Hern{\'a}n Asorey and Pedro Assis and J. Aublin and Morris Ave and Gimena Avila and Tobias B{\"a}cker and Daniel Badagnani and M. Balzer and Karen A R Barber and Ademarlaudo F. Barbosa and Soraya Coelho Costa Barroso and B J Baughman and Pablo Bauleo and James J. Beatty and Bryan R. Becker and Kurt H. Becker and Arnaud Bell{\'e}toile and J. A. Bellido and Segev BenZvi and Corinne B{\'e}rat and Timo Bergmann and Xavier Bertou and P. L. Biermann and Pierre Billoir and O. Blanch-Bigas and Ferre{\~n}o Blanco and Michael Blanco and Carla Bleve and H. J. Bl{\"u}mer and Martina Boh{\'a}{\vc}ov{\'a} and D. Boncioli and Corrado Bonifazi and Raffaella Bonino and N V Borodaĭ and Jochen Brack and Pedro Brogueira and William C. Brown and Ronald Bruijn and Peter Buchholz and Angel Bueno and Roxanne E. Burton and Nicolas Busca and K. S. Caballero-Mora and Lauretiu Ioan Caramete and Roberta Caruso and Antonella Castellina and Osvaldo Catalano and Giancarlo Cataldi and L. Caz{\'o}n and R. Cester and Jo{\"e}l Chauvin and Andrea Chiavassa and Jos{\'e} A. Chinellato and Aihui Chou and Jan Chudoba and Roger W. Clay and Elisabetta Colombo and Maria R. Coluccia and Roque Conceiç{\~a}o and F Contreras and Hallworth Cook and Malcolm J. Cooper and J{\"u}rgen Coppens and Adeline Cordier and Umberto Cotti and St{\'e}phane Coutu and Corbin E. Covault and A. Creusot and Alison L Criss and J. Cronin and A. Curutiu and Sylvie Dagoret-Campagne and R. Dallier and K. Daumiller and B. R. Dawson and Rafael de Almeida and Maria De Domenico and C De Donato and Sander J. G. de Jong and Gabriela de la Vega and Wilson de Mello J{\'u}nior and J R T de Mello Neto and Ivan De Mitri and Vidal de Souza and Kristen D de Vries and Guillaume Decerprit and L del Peral and Olivier Deligny and A Della Selva and Chiara Delle Fratte and Hans Dembinski and Camilo Di Giulio and J. C. Diaz and M L D{\'i}az Castro and Pham Thi Ngoc Diep and Carola Dobrigkeit and J C D'Olivo and Pham Ngoc Dong and A. Ya. Dorofeev and Juliana Cristine Dos Anjos and Maŕıa Teresa Dova and D D'Urso and Ioana Duţan and M. A. Duvernois and J. Ebr and Robert Engel and Matthias Erdmann and Carlos O. Escobar and Agustina Etchegoyen and P Facal San Luis and Heino Falcke and Graville Farrar and A. Fauth and N. Fazzini and Alejandro Ferrero and Brian Fick and Alberto Filevich and Andrej Filip{\vc}i{\vc} and Ivor Fleck and Stefan Fliescher and Claudio Fracchiolla and Eloise Fraenkel and Ulf Fr{\"o}hlich and Walter Fulgione and Rodolfo Gamarra and Stefano Gambetta and Bryant Garcia and D Garc{\'i}a G{\'a}mez and Diego Garc{\'i}a-Pinto and X. Garrido and Gianpaolo Gelmini and Hartmut Gemmeke and Piera Luisa Ghia and U. Giaccari and Maria Giller and Heidi Glass and Lisa M. Goggin and Marks S Gold and Geraldina Golup and F A G{\'o}mez Albarrac{\'i}n and Mariano G{\'o}mez Berisso and Patrı́cia Gonçalves and D. Gonz{\'a}lez and Javier G. Gonz{\'a}lez and Dariusz G{\'o}ra and Abdolhamid Gorgi and P. Gouffon and Silvia Gozzini and Eric William Grashorn and Scott Grebe and Martina Grigat and Aurelio F. Grillo and Yann Guardincerri and Francesca Guarino and Germano P. Guedes and J. D. Hague and V. Halenka and Paulin Hansen and Dafna Harari and S. Harmsma and J. L. Harton and Andreas Haungs and Thomas Hebbeker and D. Heck and A. E. Herv{\'e} and Carlos Hojvat and Vicki C Holmes and Piotr Homola and J{\"o}rg R. H{\"o}randel and Andreas Horneffer and Miroslav Hrabovsk{\'y} and Tim Huege and M Hussain and Marco Iarlori and Antonio Insolia and Florin D. Ionita and Antonio Italiano and Sarka Jiraskova and K. Kadija and M. Kaducak and K. H. Kampert and T. Karova and Penelope Kasper and Bal{\'a}zs K{\'e}gl and Bianca Keilhauer and Ali Keivani and Judas Kelley and Evan Kemp and Roger M. Kieckhafer and H. O. Klages and Matthias Kleifges and J. Kleinfeller and R. Knapik and Johanna Knapp and D. Koang and Avery Krieger and Olaf Kr{\"o}mer and Daniel Kruppke-Hansen and Frederick Kuehn and Daniel Kuempel and K. Kulbartz and N. Kunka and Alexander Kusenko and Guido La Rosa and Christophe Lachaud and Beatriz Leger{\'e}n Lago and P. Lautridou and Marcelo Soares Le{\~a}o and Daniel Lebrun and Paul Lebrun and Jaison Lee and M A Leigui de Oliveira and Arnaud Lemi{\`e}re and Antoine Letessier-Selvon and I. Lhenry-Yvon and Roberto L{\'o}pez and A Lopez Ag{\"u}era and Karim Louedec and J Lozano Bahilo and Anthony Lucero and Marianne Ludwig and H. Lyberis and Maria Concetta Maccarone and C. Macolino and Simone Maldera and Du{\vs}an Mand{\'a}t and Paul M. Mantsch and A. G. Mariazzi and Victor Marin and I. C. Mariş and H R Marquez Falcon and Giovanni Marsella and Daniele Martello and O Mart{\'i}nez Bravo and H. J. Mathes and J. Matthews and J. A. J. Matthews and Giorgio Matthiae and D. Maurizio and Pawel O. Mazur and Michelle McEwen and Gustavo A. Medina-Tanco and M. Melissas and David Melo and Emanuela Menichetti and Alexander Menshikov and Christoph Meurer and S. Mi{\vc}anovi{\'c} and Maria Isabel Micheletti and Wolfram Miller and L. Miramonti and Silvia Mollerach and M. Monasor and D Monnier Ragaigne and François Montanet and Briseyda Morales and Candis Morello and Edgard Moreno and Juan Carlos Duke Moreno and Clive Morris and Miguel Mostaf{\'a} and Stefan M{\"u}ller and Marc A. Muller and Roberto Mussa and Gianni Navarra and Jos{\'e} Javier Lorenzo Navarro and Sergio J. Navas and P. Necesal and Lukas Nellen and Pham Thi Hong Nhung and Nils Nierstenh{\"o}fer and D. E. Nitz and Dalibor Nosek and Libor No{\vz}ka and Michal Nyklicek and J{\"u}rgen Oehlschl{\"a}ger and Angela V. Olinto and Pietro Oliva and V. M. Olmos-Gilbaja and M. Ortiz and Nicol{\'a}s Pacheco and D Pakk Selmi-Dei and Miroslav Palatka and Juan Pallotta and Nicola Palmieri and Gonzalo Parente and Etienne Parizot and Sandra Parlati and Andres Parra and J. Parrisius and Richard David Parsons and Sergio Pastor and T. G. Gregory Paul and Vasiliki Pavlidou and Kevin Payet and Miroslav Pech and Jan Pekala and Roberto Pelayo and I. Pepe and Lisa Perrone and Roberto Pesce and E. Petermann and Sergio Petrera and Paolo Petrinca and A. Petrolini and Yurij Petrov and Jovana Petrovic and Carl Pfendner and R. Piegaia and Tanguy Pierog and M{\'a}rio Pimenta and Valerio Pirronello and M. Platino and V{\'i}ctor Hugo Ponce Ponce and Martin Pontz and Paolo Privitera and Michael Prouza and Eduardo J. Quel and Julian Rautenberg and Olivier Ravel and D. Ravignani and A. Redondo and Benoı̂t Revenu and Flavio Astolpho Vieira Souto Rezende and Jan Ridky and Simone Riggi and Monika Risse and Pablo Ristori and Colas Rivi{\`e}re and Vincenzo Rizi and Carmen Robledo and George Rodriguez and J Rodr{\'i}guez Martino and J Rodriguez Rojo and I. Rodriguez-Cabo and Mar{\'i}a Dolores Rodr{\'i}guez-Fr{\'i}as and Garc{\'i}a Ros and Jos{\'e} Rosado and Tomas Rossler and Mike Roth and B Rouill{\'e}-d'Orfeuil and Esteban Roulet and A. C. Rovero and F. Salamida and H. Salazar and Gaetano Salina and Filomeno S{\'a}nchez and M D Sanz Santander and Carmelita do Esp{\'i}rito Santo and Erika Maria Monteiro dos Santos and Francine F-A Sarazin and S. Sarkar and Ryunosuke Sato and Nadja Scharf and V. Scherini and H. Schieler and Peter Schiffer and Annemarie Schmidt and Falko Schmidt and Th Schmidt and O Scholten and H Schoorlemmer and Jaroslava Schovancov{\'a} and Petr Schov{\'a}nek and Florian Schr{\"o}der and Sabine Schulte and Friedrich Schuessler and Dietwald Schuster and S. Sciutto and M. Scuderi and Alberto Segreto and Dmitry V. Semikoz and Mariangela Settimo and Arash Shadkam and Ronald Cintra Shellard and Ivan Sidelnik and Beatriz B. Siffert and G{\"u}nter Sigl and A. Śmiałkowski and R. {\vS}m{\'i}da and Gregory R. Snow and Paul M. Sommers and J. N. Sorokin and Harold Spinka and R. Squartini and Jaroslaw Stasielak and Marc Stephan and E. Strazzeri and Alfred Stutz and Federico Suarez and T. Suomij{\"a}rvi and Alicia Supanitsky and Tamaki Susa and Michael S. Sutherland and Janmejaya Swain and Z. Szadkowski and Ayumu Tamashiro and Alessio Tamburro and Andr{\'e}s Tapia and Tatiana Tarutina and O. Taşcău and Rodica Tcaciuc and Denis Tcherniakhovski and Domenico Tegolo and Nguyeiz T. Thao and D. Thomas and Javier Tiffenberg and Catherine Timmermans and W. Tkaczyk and C J Todero Peixoto and Basheer Tome and A. Tonachini and Petr Tr{\'a}vn{\'i}{\vc}ek and D. B. Tridapalli and G. Tristram and Emanuela Trovato and Mat{\'i}as Tueros and Ralf Ulrich and Michael. Unger and Manfred Urban and J F Vald{\'e}s Galicia and I. Vali{\~n}o and L. Valore and Anke van den Berg and J. J. Rodŕıguez V{\'a}zquez and Roberto Antonio V{\'a}zquez and Darko Veberic and Tonia M. Venters and V. Verzi and Mart{\'i}n Videla and L. Villase{\~n}or and Serguei Vorobiov and L Voyvodic and Hernan Wahlberg and P. Wahrlich and O. Wainberg and D. Warner and Alan A. Watson and Stefan Westerhoff and Brett Whelan and Gabriele Wieczorek and L. Wiencke and Barbara Wilczynska and Henryk Wilczynski and Carroll M. Williams and Tobias Winchen and M. G. Winnick and B. Wundheiler and Takuya Yamamoto and Patrick Younk and Guanghui Yuan and Alexander Yushkov and Enrique Zas and D. Zavrtanik and Marko Zavrtanik and Ingyin Zaw and Arnulfo Zepeda and Michael F. Ziolkowski},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2010},
  volume={104 9},
  pages={091101}
}
We describe the measurement of the depth of maximum, X{max}, of the longitudinal development of air showers induced by cosmic rays. Almost 4000 events above 10;{18} eV observed by the fluorescence detector of the Pierre Auger Observatory in coincidence with at least one surface detector station are selected for the analysis. The average shower maximum was found to evolve with energy at a rate of (106{-21}{+35}) g/cm{2}/decade below 10{18.24+/-0.05} eV, and (24+/-3) g/cm{2}/decade above this… CONTINUE READING

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