Measurement of electron clouds in large accelerators by microwave dispersion.

  title={Measurement of electron clouds in large accelerators by microwave dispersion.},
  author={Steven De Santis and J. M. Byrd and Fritz Caspers and Anatoly Krasnykh and T. Kroyer and Mauro T. F. Pivi and Kiran G. Sonnad},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  volume={100 9},
Clouds of low energy electrons in the vacuum beam pipes of accelerators of positively charged particle beams present a serious limitation for operation at high currents. Furthermore, it is difficult to probe their density over substantial lengths of the beam pipe. We have developed a novel technique to directly measure the electron cloud density via the phase shift induced in a TE wave transmitted over a section of the accelerator and used it to measure the average electron cloud density over a… CONTINUE READING

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