Measurement of breathlessness in clinical trials in patients with chronic heart failure: the need for a standardized approach: a systematic review.

Abstract

AIMS Chronic breathlessness is a major symptom for patients with compensated chronic heart failure (CHF) and its impact is different to the breathlessness resulting from pulmonary oedema. This systematic review aims to establish which tools have been used for research into the subjective severity of breathlessness in patients with compensated CHF and to… (More)
DOI: 10.1093/eurjhf/hfp194

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