We used an established isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method to measure blood volumes with an enriched stable isotope of chromium. The results were compared with those of the conventional method, which involves radioactive 51Cr. The two methods were compared simultaneously in two male subjects of different sizes, and essentially identical volumes were obtained. The isotope dilution method is insensitive to contamination with natural (unenriched) chromium and can be used to measure all of the stable isotopes of chromium. The method has potential applications in simultaneous erythrocyte survival studies. The absence of radioactivity makes possible an accurate means of studying blood volume changes in children and during pregnancy.