Measurement of Dissociative States with the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS)

  title={Measurement of Dissociative States with the Clinician-Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS)},
  author={James Douglas Bremner and John H. Krystal and Frank W Putnam and Steven M. Southwick and Charles Marmar and Dennis S. Charney and Carolyn M. Mazure},
  journal={Journal of Traumatic Stress},
The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for the measurement of present-state dissociative symptoms, the Clinician Administered Dissociative States Scale (CADSS). Reported here are interrater reliability and internal consistency of the CADSS, validity as assessed by comparisons with other instruments for the assessment of dissociation, and sensitivity of the CADSS to discriminate patients with dissociative disorders from patients with other psychiatric disorders and healthy… 


Research related to the dissociative subtype including antecedent, concurrent, and predictive validators as well as the rationale for recommending the dissociation subtype are reviewed.

Development and Psychometric Characteristics of the Dissociation Tension Scale

There was clear evidence for the DSS being a sensitive instrument for the assessment of changing symptomatology and good support for convergent, discriminant, and differential validity.

Posttraumatic Symptomatology and Dissociation in Outpatients with Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Regression analysis revealed that increased severity and frequency of posttraumatic symptoms, as measured by the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale total, was the only significant predictor of dissociation.

Development and Psychometric Characteristics of the DSS-4 as a Short Instrument to Assess Dissociative Experience during Neuropsychological Experiments

The newly developed DSS-4 provides a reliable and easy-to-use tool for the assessment of psychological and somatic aspects of dissociative states, for example for the use at multiple times during single neuropsychological experiments or neuroimaging.

Effect of ketamine dose on self-rated dissociation in patients with treatment refractory anxiety disorders

The high Cronbach alpha values identified in this study suggests that the CADSS is an internally consistent instrument for evaluating ketamine-induced dissociation in clinical trials in anxiety, although it does not capture symptoms such as thought disorder.


The authors provide summaries of various types of assessment for dissociation in infants, children, teens, and adults including structured interviews, specialized questionnaires, and scales on more general instruments, along with their psychometric properties.

Frontal and occipital perfusion changes in dissociative identity disorder

The Detachment and Compartmentalization Inventory (DCI): An assessment tool for two potentially distinct forms of dissociation

The DCI could detect compartmentalization and detachment, and was designed for clinical research and for screening patients, and exhibited good internal reliability, discriminant validity, convergent validity, construct validity and concurrent validity.

Dissociative Symptoms in Acute Stress Disorder

A significant overlap between dissociative symptoms questions the discriminatory power and conceptual independence of the dissociation criteria and suggests the need for a more refined conceptual and operational understanding of dissociatives symptoms in the acute trauma stage.

The Dissociative Subtype of PTSD Interview (DSP-I): Development and Psychometric Properties

The Dissociative Subtype of PTSD Interview (DSP-I) appears to be a clinically relevant and psychometrically sound instrument that is valuable for use in clinical and research settings.



The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Dissociative Disorders: preliminary report on a new diagnostic instrument.

Preliminary findings from a study of 48 subjects with and without psychiatric diagnoses indicate good to excellent reliability and discriminant validity for the SCID-D as a diagnostic instrument for the five Dissociative disorders and as a tool for the evaluation of dissociative symptoms encountered within nondissociative syndromes.

Disintegrated experience: the dissociative disorders revisited.

It is concluded that further work on dissociative processes will provide an important link between clinical and experimental approaches to human cognition, emotion, and personality.

Development, Reliability, and Validity of a Dissociation Scale

  • E. Bernstein
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The Journal of nervous and mental disease
  • 1986
The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) has been developed to offer a means of reliably measuring dissociation in normal and clinical populations and was able to distinguish between subjects with a dissociative disorder (multiple personality) and all other subjects.

Reliability and validity of the symptoms of major depressive illness.

Results indicated that most signs and symptoms of major depression and melancholia can be reliably rated by clinicians during a semistructured interview.

Dissociation and hypnotizability in posttraumatic stress disorder.

Patients with PTSD had significantly higher hypnotizability scores than patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, major depression, bipolar disorder--depressed, and dysthymic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder and the control sample.

Dissociative symptoms in relation to childhood physical and sexual abuse.

  • J. ChuD. Dill
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 1990
Subjects with a history of childhood abuse reported higher levels of dissociative symptoms than those who did not, and patients with histories of abuse had scores at or above the median score of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.


Investigators have described dissociative phenomena in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and, conversely, viewed dissociative disorders such as multiple personality disorder (MPD) as related to

The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. I. Development, use, and reliability.

In a study involving four raters and 40 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder at various stages of treatment, interrater reliability for the total Yale-Brown Scale score and each of the 10 individual items was excellent, with high degree of internal consistency among all item scores demonstrated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient.

Dissociative experiences in the general population.

Results showed that scale scores did not differ between men and women and were not influenced by income, employment status, education, place of birth, religious affiliation, or number of persons in the respondent's household.

Use of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders for systematic assessment of dissociative symptoms in posttraumatic stress disorder.

The finding of higher levels of dissociation symptoms in Vietnam combat veterans with PTSD than in Vietnam veterans without PTSD is consistent with a level of dissociative symptoms in PTSD similar to that in Dissociative disorders.