Measurement invariance of big-five factors over the life span: ESEM tests of gender, age, plasticity, maturity, and la dolce vita effects.

@article{Marsh2013MeasurementIO,
  title={Measurement invariance of big-five factors over the life span: ESEM tests of gender, age, plasticity, maturity, and la dolce vita effects.},
  author={Herbert W. Marsh and Benjamin Nagengast and Alexandre J. S. Morin},
  journal={Developmental psychology},
  year={2013},
  volume={49 6},
  pages={
          1194-1218
        }
}
This substantive-methodological synergy applies evolving approaches to factor analysis to substantively important developmental issues of how five-factor-approach (FFA) personality measures vary with gender, age, and their interaction. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) conducted at the item level often do not support a priori FFA structures, due in part to the overly restrictive assumptions of CFA models. Here we demonstrate that exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), an integration… 

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