Measurement and Meaning in Biology

@article{Houle2011MeasurementAM,
  title={Measurement and Meaning in Biology},
  author={David Houle and Christophe P{\'e}labon and G{\"u}nter P. Wagner and Thomas F. Hansen},
  journal={The Quarterly Review of Biology},
  year={2011},
  volume={86},
  pages={3 - 34}
}
Measurement—the assignment of numbers to attributes of the natural world—is central to all scientific inference. Measurement theory concerns the relationship between measurements and reality; its goal is ensuring that inferences about measurements reflect the underlying reality we intend to represent. The key principle of measurement theory is that theoretical context, the rationale for collecting measurements, is essential to defining appropriate measurements and interpreting their values… 
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