Factorial Structure of the Spanish Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scales in HIV Patients
This manuscript examines the measurement adequacy of the CES-D when applied in older African-Americans (n=227). The response distribution was skewed towards less symptomatology on all items, and the internal consistency of the CES-D was acceptable (alpha=0.86). An exploratory factor analysis revealed four underlying factors of depressive symptomatology: (1) depressive/somatic; (2) positive; (3) interpersonal; and (4) social well-being. The primary factor was a combination of depression and somatic symptoms, a commonly reported uni-dimensional factor among ethnic groups. Additionally, a fourth factor emerged that has not previously been identified, labeled 'social well-being'. This factor consisted of three items that may tap into the social interactions of the elderly: appetite, hopeful, and talk. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence on the unique measurement properties of the CES-D across diverse populations.