# Mean-field theory of spin-liquid states with finite energy gap and topological orders.

@article{Wen1991MeanfieldTO, title={Mean-field theory of spin-liquid states with finite energy gap and topological orders.}, author={Wen}, journal={Physical review. B, Condensed matter}, year={1991}, volume={44 6}, pages={ 2664-2672 } }

The mean-field theory of a T- and P-symmetric spin-liquid state is developed. The quasiparticle excitations in the spin-liquid state are shown to be spin-1/2 neutral fermions (the spinons) and charge e spinless bosons (the holons). The spin-liquid state is shown to be characterized by a nontrivial topological order. Although our discussions are based on the mean-field theory, the concept of the topological order and the associated universal properties (e.g., the quantum number of the…

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Baskaran also studied some mean field theories which completely break the SU (2) gauge symmetry. G. Baskaran private communication