Maximum Bite Force and Prey Size of Tyrannosaurus rex and Their Relationships to the Inference of Feeding Behavior

@article{Meers2002MaximumBF,
  title={Maximum Bite Force and Prey Size of Tyrannosaurus rex and Their Relationships to the Inference of Feeding Behavior},
  author={Mason B. Meers},
  journal={Historical Biology},
  year={2002},
  volume={16},
  pages={1 - 12}
}
The feeding behavior of the theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex is investigated through analysis of two variables that are critical to successful predation, bite force and prey body mass, as they scale with the size of the predator. These size-related variables have important deterministic effects on the predator’s feeding strategy, through their effects on lethal capacity and choice of prey. Bite force data compiled for extant predators (crocodylians, carnivorans, chelonians and squamates) are… Expand
Bite club: comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa
TLDR
Estimated bite force quotient (BFQ) values in two extinct carnivores with morphologies not represented among extant species support arguments that their killing techniques also differed from extant species and are consistent with ‘canine-shear bite’ and ‘stabbing’ models. Expand
Bite forces and evolutionary adaptations to feeding ecology in carnivores.
TLDR
It is shown that, when normalized for body size, bite forces differ significantly between the various feeding categories, and the incorporation of bite force data may assist in the construction of more robust evolutionary and palaeontological analyses of feeding ecology. Expand
3D Bite Modeling and Feeding Mechanics of the Largest Living Amphibian, the Chinese Giant Salamander Andrias davidianus (Amphibia:Urodela)
TLDR
The skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis and reveals that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Expand
Mandibular force profiles of extant carnivorans and implications for the feeding behaviour of extinct predators
TLDR
Results indicate that the feeding behaviour of Panthera atrox differed slightly from that of modern lions, as the powerful paws restrained prey more efficiently, while C. dirus hunted in a similar fashion to the gray wolf, although it may not have been an efficient bone cracker. Expand
The bite force of the largest fossil rodent (Hystricognathi, Caviomorpha, Dinomyidae)
TLDR
The incisors seem to be stronger than expected for this bite force implying that the bite forces may have been greater than 3000 N, and three hypotheses are considered: allometric effects, teeth digging or defence against predators, to explain the results. Expand
Feeding behaviour and bite force of sabretoothed predators
TLDR
The feeding behaviour of extinct sabretoothed predators (machaeroidines, nimravids, barbourofelids, machairodonts and thylacosmilines) is investigated using beam theory and it is revealed that sabretooths had a powerful bite, as strong or stronger than extant felids of similar mandibular length. Expand
Scaling of bite force in the blacktip shark Carcharhinus limbatus.
TLDR
Positive allometry of bite force in C. limbatus would seem to indicate an ecological necessity for this phenomenon, but dietary analyses do not necessarily indicate any ontogenetic shift in prey types requiring larger bite forces. Expand
Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics
TLDR
Scaling analyses suggest that adult T. rex had a strong bite for its body size, and that bite performance increased allometrically during ontogeny, associated with an expansion of prey range in adults to include the largest contemporaneous animals. Expand
Bite force and body mass of the fossil rodent Telicomys giganteus (Caviomorpha, Dinomyidae)
TLDR
This study reconstructed the main anatomical features of the skull of this Pliocene rodent Telicomys giganteus and related them to the bite force at the incisors, implying that the bite forces may have been greater than 2000 N. Expand
Intra-guild competition and its implications for one of the biggest terrestrial predators, Tyrannosaurus rex
TLDR
The results suggest that T. rex and other extremely large carnivorous dinosaurs would have been unable to compete as obligate scavengers and would have primarily hunted large vertebrate prey, similar to many large mammalian carnivores in modern-day ecosystems. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 53 REFERENCES
Development of bite strength and feeding behaviour in juvenile spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta)
TLDR
It is demonstrated that juvenile hyenas had not achieved adult feeding performance levels at 12 months of age, when they are typically weaned in the wild, which suggests that recently weaned cubs may be at an increased risk of starvation and that selection might favour later weaning times. Expand
Bite-force estimation for Tyrannosaurus rex from tooth-marked bones
TLDR
The discovery of skeletal remains with bite marks from Tyrannosaurus rex makes it possible to estimate, through indentation simulations on bovine ilia, the bite forces produced by T. rexduring feeding, and these estimates rival the largest bite forces determined for any taxon to date and suggest thatT. Expand
Empirical relationships between predator and prey size among terrestrial vertebrate predators
TLDR
Combined with allometric models of the bionergetics and productivity of animals, these relations are used to predict that: (1) the daily kill rate declines with predator weight and (2) the upper limit to predator biomass is independent of predator weight. Expand
Forces of biting, body size, and masticatory muscle tension in the opossum Didelphis virginiana
TLDR
The authors maximally stimulated the jaw adducting muscles of ten opossums under anaesthesia and recorded the force output between the first molars, showing some scatter, but significant regressions were obtained of peak force of biting on both body weight and skull length. Expand
Carnivore body size: Ecological and taxonomic correlates
TLDR
Variation in body size (weight) is examined across the order Carnivora in relation to taxonomy, latitude, habitat, zonation, activity cycle, diet, prey size, and prey diversity and the adaptive significance of prey characteristics and carnivore body weight qualities is discussed. Expand
Body mass, bone “strength indicator,” and cursorial potential of Tyrannosaurus rex
TLDR
The implication is that the cursorial potential of Tyrannosaurus was limited, a conclusion consistent with observed declines in sprint speed with increasing body mass in living animals, and also consistent with the tibia/femur length ratio, and the construction of the hip joint, of the dinosaur. Expand
Canine tooth strength and killing behaviour in large carnivores
TLDR
The canines of sabretooth cats are shown to be more similar in shape and strength characteristics to those of living canids than felids, whereas those of the borophagine dogs and the dire wolf are closer to modern hyaenas. Expand
Walker's mammals of the world
From aardwolves and bandicoots to yapoks and zorillas, Ernest P. Walker's Mammals of the World is the most comprehensive-the pre-eminent-reference work on mammals. Now, completely revised andExpand
A king-sized theropod coprolite
TLDR
This specimen is more than twice as large as any previously reported carnivore coprolite, and its great size and temporal and geographic context indicate that it was produced by a tyrannosaur, most likely Tyrannosaurus rex. Expand
Estimates of forces exerted by the jaw muscles of some reptiles
Masses and muscle fibre lengths have been determined for the jaw muscles of Chrysemys (Chelonia). Varanus (Lacertilia) and Caiman (Crocodilia). Hence the force that each muscle can exert has beenExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...