Maxims or myths of beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review.

  title={Maxims or myths of beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review.},
  author={Judith H. Langlois and L Kalakanis and Adam J. Rubenstein and Alina Sue Larson and Michael Neil Hallam and Melissa Smoot},
  journal={Psychological bulletin},
  volume={126 3},
Common maxims about beauty suggest that attractiveness is not important in life. In contrast, both fitness-related evolutionary theory and socialization theory suggest that attractiveness influences development and interaction. In 11 meta-analyses, the authors evaluate these contradictory claims, demonstrating that (a) raters agree about who is and is not attractive, both within and across cultures; (b) attractive children and adults are judged more positively than unattractive children and… 

When Romance and Rivalry Awaken

Previous research indicates positive effects of a person’s attractiveness on evaluations of opposite-sex persons, but less positive or even negative effects of attractiveness on same-sex evaluations.

When Romance and Rivalry Awaken

Findings corroborate the relevance of mating-related motives for social judgment and illustrate how such biases can grow during human development and demonstrate the utility of investigating proximate social judgment processes through the lens of adaptationist thinking.

How advertising beauty influences children's self-perception and behavior

The authors investigate (1) whether the physical attractiveness stereotype applies to children, (2) whether children’s self-perception is influenced by the attractiveness of an advertising model, (3)

Number of friends and self-perception among Jamaican children: the role of attractiveness and fluctuating asymmetry.

The results showed that how attractive a child was perceived by others was significantly positively correlated with self-ratings of attractiveness, and a reversal in the sex differences in self-perceived attractiveness and self-esteem was found.

The Price of Being Beautiful: Negative Effects of Attractiveness on Empathy for Children in Need

The research examines how the attractiveness of children in need affects the empathy they evoke and the subsequent help they receive from unrelated adults. The authors find that attractive children

Beautification Is More than Mere Mate Attraction: Extending Evolutionary Perspectives on Female Appearance Enhancement

In their Target Article, Davis and Arnocky (2020) clearly articulate, and provide abundant evidence illustrating, robust links between men’s and women’s mating efforts and the forms, frequency, and

Don’t Judge a Book by Its Cover, Revisited

Despite the widely accepted “what is beautiful is good” stereotype, the findings suggest that the beautiful strive for conformity rather than independence and for self-promotion rather than tolerance.

The predictive validity of ideal partner preferences: a review and meta-analysis.

A new integrative model is presented that highlights when and why ideals succeed or fail to predict relational outcomes and identifies alternative measures of ideal partner preferences that have stronger predictive validity in certain theoretically sensible contexts.

You are so beautiful... to me: seeing beyond biases and achieving accuracy in romantic relationships.

The results suggest that romantic partners have some awareness of each other's identity and reputation for physical attractiveness, supporting theories that couple members' perceptions are driven by motives to fulfill both esteem- and epistemic-related needs.

Sex Differences in Judgments of Physical Attractiveness: A Social Relations Analysis

Men and women rated the physical attractiveness of other men and women who were sitting nearby and were rated by them in return and provided meta-perceptions of how they thought those others rated them, which determined the highest levels of consensus and idiosyncrasy.



What is beautiful is good, but…: A meta-analytic review of research on the physical attractiveness stereotype.

This review demonstrates that the physical attractiveness stereotype established by studies of person perception is not as strong or general as suggested by the often-used summary phrase what is

Physical attractiveness and intellectual competence : a meta-analytic review

Meta-analysis was used to test hypotheses about the relationship between physical attractiveness and intellectual competence. in support of status generalization theory and implicit personality

The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Ethnicity on Children's Behavioral Attributions and Peer Preferences.

LANGLOIS, JUDITH H., and STEPHAN, COOKIE. The Effects of Physical Attractiveness and Ethnicity on Children's Behavioral Attributions and Peer Preferences. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1977, 48, 1694-1698. The

Gender, Physical Attractiveness, and Assertiveness

JACKSON AND HUSTON (1975) found that attractive American women were more assertive than unattractive women on a behavioral measure that involved correcting the impoliteness of the experimenter. There

Physical attractiveness, romantic love, and equity restoration in dating relationships.

The results suggest that as the dating relationship progresses, the relative difference in attractiveness between partners may become a more important determinant of attraction than overall level of attractiveness.

Physical attractiveness, happiness, neuroticism, and self-esteem.

The hypotheses that physical attractiveness is positively correlated with happiness, psychological health, and self-esteem was tested with 211 men and women undergraduates and the superior outcomes obtained by the attractive women made them happy, psychologically healthy, and proud of themselves.

Physical attractiveness in social interaction.

What impact does physical attractiveness have on social interaction? Although many studies demonstrate that beautiful people are more highly regarded, there are no reports about the effects of

Physical Attractiveness as an Input in Social Exchanges

Summary Many studies have shown that attractive women obtain greater rewards from men than unattractive women. The purpose of Experiment I was to find out whether these results can be generalized to

Physical attractiveness and personality among American college students.

Summary On the basis of substantial evidence that physical attractiveness produces differential social-evaluative treatment from the environment, attractiveness-related differences in selected

What is beautiful is good.

The present results indicate a "what is beautiful is good" stereotype along the physical attractiveness dimension with no Sex of Judge X Sex of Stimulus interaction, which has implications on self-concept development and the course of social interaction.