# Matter-wave interference of particles selected from a molecular library with masses exceeding 10,000 amu.

@article{Eibenberger2013MatterwaveIO, title={Matter-wave interference of particles selected from a molecular library with masses exceeding 10,000 amu.}, author={Sandra Eibenberger and Stefan Gerlich and Markus Arndt and Marcel Mayor and Jens T{\"u}xen}, journal={Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP}, year={2013}, volume={15 35}, pages={ 14696-700 } }

The quantum superposition principle, a key distinction between quantum physics and classical mechanics, is often perceived as a philosophical challenge to our concepts of reality, locality or space-time since it contrasts with our intuitive expectations with experimental observations on isolated quantum systems. While we are used to associating the notion of localization with massive bodies, quantum physics teaches us that every individual object is associated with a wave function that may…

## 208 Citations

### Quantum superposition of molecules beyond 25 kDa

- PhysicsNature Physics
- 2019

Matter-wave interference experiments provide a direct confirmation of the quantum superposition principle, a hallmark of quantum theory, and thereby constrain possible modifications to quantum…

### Quantum superposition at the half-metre scale

- PhysicsNature
- 2015

Large quantum superposition states are vital to exploring gravity with atom interferometers in greater detail and could be used to increase sensitivity in tests of the equivalence principle, measure the gravitational Aharonov–Bohm effect, and eventually detect gravitational waves and phase shifts associated with general relativity.

### Composite particles with minimum uncertainty in spacetime

- Physics
- 2019

Published version: https://doi.org/10.1103/PHYSREVRESEARCH.3.013049
Composite particles---atoms, molecules, or microspheres---are unique tools for testing joint quantum and general relativistic…

### Experiments testing macroscopic quantum superpositions must be slow

- PhysicsScientific reports
- 2016

The solution to the paradox which is based on the following fundamental principle: any local experiment, discriminating a coherent superposition from an incoherent statistical mixture, necessarily requires a minimum time proportional to the mass (or charge) of the system.

### Large spatial Schrödinger cat state using a levitated ferrimagnetic nanoparticle

- PhysicsNew Journal of Physics
- 2019

The superposition principle is one of the main tenets of quantum mechanics. Despite its counter-intuitiveness, it has been experimentally verified using electrons, photons, atoms, and molecules.…

### Quantum decoherence from classically undetectable sources: A standard quantum limit for diffusion

- Physics
- 2015

One limit of experimental physics is that it does not allow us to rule out the existence of new particles, forces, dimensions, or universes from which we are causally disconnected. Even if some…

### Composite particles with minimum uncertainty in spacetime

- Physics
- 2020

Composite particles---atoms, molecules, or microspheres---are unique tools for testing joint quantum and general relativistic effects, macroscopic limits of quantum mechanics, and searching for new…

### Macroscopic Quantum Resonators (MAQRO): 2015 update

- Physics
- 2016

Do the laws of quantum physics still hold for macroscopic objects - this is at the heart of Schrödinger’s cat paradox - or do gravitation or yet unknown effects set a limit for massive particles?…

### Matter-wave physics with nanoparticles and biomolecules

- PhysicsCurrent Trends in Atomic Physics
- 2019

The chapter discusses advances in matter-wave optics with complex molecules, generalizing Young’s double slit to high masses. The quantum wave-particle duality is visualized by monitoring the arrival…

### Generation of mechanical interference fringes by multi-photon counting

- Physics2017 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe & European Quantum Electronics Conference (CLEO/Europe-EQEC)
- 2017

Exploring the quantum behaviour of macroscopic objects provides an intriguing avenue to study the foundations of physics and to develop a suite of quantum-enhanced technologies. One prominent path of…

## References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 30 REFERENCES

### Quantum interference experiments with large molecules

- Physics, Education
- 2003

Wave–particle duality is frequently the first topic students encounter in elementary quantum physics. Although this phenomenon has been demonstrated with photons, electrons, neutrons, and atoms, the…

### Wave–particle duality of C60 molecules

- PhysicsNature
- 1999

The observation of de Broglie wave interference of C60 molecules by diffraction at a material absorption grating is reported, which is the most massive and complex object in which wave behaviour has been observed.

### Quantum interference of large organic molecules

- PhysicsNature communications
- 2011

It is shown that even complex systems, with more than 1,000 internal degrees of freedom, can be prepared in quantum states that are sufficiently well isolated from their environment to avoid decoherence and to show almost perfect coherence.

### Models of Wave-function Collapse, Underlying Theories, and Experimental Tests

- Physics
- 2013

We describe the state of the art in preparing, manipulating and detecting coherent molecular matter. We focus on experimental methods for handling the quantum motion of compound systems from diatomic…

### Real-time single-molecule imaging of quantum interference.

- PhysicsNature nanotechnology
- 2012

This work shows how a combination of nanofabrication and nano-imaging allows us to record the full two-dimensional build-up of quantum interference patterns in real time for phthalocyanine molecules and for derivatives of phthaloprotein molecules, which have masses of 514 AMU and 1,298 AMu respectively.

### Influence of conformational molecular dynamics on matter wave interferometry

- Physics
- 2010

We investigate the influence of thermally activated internal molecular dynamics on the phase shifts of matter waves inside a molecule interferometer. While de Broglie physics generally describes only…

### Decoherence of matter waves by thermal emission of radiation

- PhysicsNature
- 2004

Good quantitative agreement is found between the experimental observations and microscopic decoherence theory of matter wave interferometer experiments in which C70 molecules lose their quantum behaviour by thermal emission of radiation.

### A universal matter-wave interferometer with optical ionization gratings in the time-domain

- PhysicsNature physics
- 2013

The experimental realization of a universal near-field interferometer built from three short-pulse single-photon ionization gratings, which is sensitive to fringe shifts as small as a few nanometers and yet robust against velocity-dependent phase shifts, since the gratings exist only for nanoseconds and form an interferometers in the time-domain.

### Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator

- PhysicsNature
- 2010

This work shows that conventional cryogenic refrigeration can be used to cool a mechanical mode to its quantum ground state by using a microwave-frequency mechanical oscillator—a ‘quantum drum’—coupled to a quantum bit, which is used to measure the quantum state of the resonator.

### Concepts for near-field interferometers with large molecules

- Physics
- 2003

We study the theory behind a Talbot–Lau interferometer. This consists of three gratings in each other’s Fresnel near field and accepts spatially incoherent illumination. Our formalism gives a clear…