Estimation of natural outcrossing rate and genetic diversity in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L. var. lunatus) from Brazil using SSR markers: implications for conservation and breeding
Using isozyme variation in a naturally pollinated seed family for 10 wild Phaseolus lunatus L. (Lima bean) populations, ranging in sizes from 10 to 60 reproductive individuals, we estimated levels of outcrossing (t) and parental inbreeding coefficient (F). We also examined the relationship between outcrossing rate and population size. Average estimates of the single-locus outcrossing rate (ts) ranged from 0.024 to 0.246 (mean=0.091±0.065). Estimates of the multilocus outcrossing rate (tm) ranged from 0.027 to 0.268, and averaged 0.096±0.071. Inbreeding coefficients based on genotypic frequencies of maternal plants were positive and significantly greater than zero (F=0.504), suggesting an excess of homozygotes in all the populations studied. There was indirect evidence of nonrandom mating for outcrosses and this was mainly attributed to self-fertilisation since the averaged difference between tm and ts, which provides a measure of biparental inbreeding, represents only 1% of the autogamy rate. No significant correlation was observed between outcrossing rate and population size. Estimates of t showed significant heterogeneity among populations and factors explaining this tendency are suggested.