Math Fluency: Accuracy Versus Speed in Preoperational and Concrete Operational First and Second Grade Children

  title={Math Fluency: Accuracy Versus Speed in Preoperational and Concrete Operational First and Second Grade Children},
  author={Vanessa Ramos-Christian and Robert Schleser and Mary Elizabeth Varn},
  journal={Early Childhood Education Journal},
Cognitive abilities as well as math fluency play an important role in mathematical skills. Understanding the relationship between cognitive abilities and mathematical skills is imperative to teaching effective arithmetic skills. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between cognitive ability and math fluency with 38 first and second grade elementary aged children. Results demonstrate that preoperational children lacked the speed of concrete operational children but achieved… Expand

Tables from this paper

Conservation Abilities, Visuospatial Skills, and Numerosity Processing Speed: Association With Math Achievement and Math Difficulties in Elementary School Children
Findings provide further evidence for the relations between children’s math skills and their visuospatial skills, conservation abilities, and processing speed and contribute to the understanding of deficits that are specific to mathematical difficulties. Expand
The Development and Tryout of a Program Designed to Increase Students' Multiplication Fact Fluency
The results of a matched-pairs t-test indicated that after the students completed the course of the program, there was a statistically significant different in the students’ ability to retrieve multiplication facts accurately and speedily. Expand
Mathematical fluency as a function of conservation ability in young children
Abstract This study was designed to investigate the cognitive level of development and mathematical fluency of first grade children. Piaget's conservation-of-liquid task was administered to 97 6- andExpand
Putting Two and Two Together: Declines in Arithmetic Fluency among Young Canadian Adults, 1993 to 2005. Technical Report 2014-01
Canadian university students (N = 461; aged between 17 and 22) were tested between 1993 and 2005 on a timed multi-digit arithmetic test. This test is closely related to the speed with which peopleExpand
Automaticity of Basic Math Facts: The Key to Math Success?
This study examined the role that basic math fact automaticity plays in math success, where automaticity is defined as the ability to recall facts with speed and accuracy at an unconscious level. Expand
Mathematical fluency in high school students
This article presents the results of a study of mathematical fluency in high school students. We provide a definition of mathematical fluency and illustrate the relevance of the research byExpand
Predicting Arithmetic Performance from Age and Executive Function Skills
PREDICTING ARITHMETIC PERFORMANCE FROM AGE AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTION SKILLS By Andrea Molzhon, B.S. A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science atExpand
Mathematics for Young Children: A Literature Review
A lot of researches have been conducted to identify the importance of mathematics and its benefits for the early childhood. To the contrary, there also emerge concerns about the risk of prematureExpand
The Association of Strategy Use and Concrete-Operational Thinking in Primary School
Concrete-operational thinking depicts an important aspect of cognitive development. A promising approach in promoting these skills is the instruction of strategies. The construction of suchExpand
Assessing the Effects of the Rocket Math Program with a Primary Elementary School Student At Risk for School Failure: A Case Study
This study assessed the effects of the Rocket Math program on the math fluency skills of a first grade student at risk for school failure. The student received instruction in the Rocket Math programExpand


The effect of fluency training on math and reading skills in neuropsychiatric diagnosis children: a multiple baseline design
Fluency (fast and accurate responding) has been found to facilitate the retention, maintenance, endurance, and application of learned skills. Fluency training has been employed effectively inExpand
The Development of Mathematical Skills
Section 1: Pre-school mathematical understanding. Numerical competence in infants. A developmental perspective on children's counting. Symbolic function in pre-schoolers. Section 2: MathematicalExpand
Preschoolers doing arithmetic: the concepts are willing but the working memory is weak.
  • J. Klein, J. Bisanz
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Canadian journal of experimental psychology = Revue canadienne de psychologie experimentale
  • 2000
The extent to which certain information-processing demands make some problems more difficult than others and whether preschoolers use arithmetic concepts spontaneously when solving novel problems is determined. Expand
Evaluating and Comparing Interventions Designed to Enhance Math Fact Accuracy and Fluency: Cover, Copy, and Compare Versus Taped Problems
An adapted alternating treatments design was used to evaluate and compare the effects of two procedures designed to enhance math fact accuracy and fluency in an elementary student with low cognitiveExpand
A Long-Term Analysis of the Relationship Between Fluency and the Training and Maintenance of Complex Math Skills
In 2 experiments, each involving different mathematical operations, we compared 2 training procedures for teaching component math skills in terms of their effects on the learning and long-termExpand
Relations between measures of Cattell‐Horn‐Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities and mathematics achievement across the school‐age years
Cognitive clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) Tests of Cognitive Abilities that measure select Cattell-Horn-Carroll broad and narrow cognitive abilities were shown to be significantlyExpand
Disabilities of Arithmetic and Mathematical Reasoning
It is proposed that an account of brain–behavior relationships in children intended to explain and predict developmental disabilities of arithmetic learning needs to address several important content and processing distinctions in order to encompass empirically derived subtypes of children with learning disabilities who exhibit difficulties with arithmetic. Expand
Fluency and Comprehension Gains as a Result of Repeated Reading
This analysis indicates that repeated reading can be used effectively with nondisabled students and students with learning disabilities to increase reading fluency and comprehension on a particular passage and as an intervention to increase overall fluencyand comprehension ability. Expand
Fluency and Comprehension Gains as a Result of Repeated Reading
Repeated reading is an evidenced-based strategy designed to increase reading fluency and comprehension. The author conducted a meta-analysis to ascertain essential instructional components ofExpand
Examining the Relationship Between Mathematics Anxiety and Mathematics Performance: An Instructional Hierarchy Perspective
This study investigated the relationship between mathematics anxiety, fluency, and error rates in basic mathematical operations among college students. College students were assigned to one of twoExpand