Maternal smoking and Down syndrome: the confounding effect of maternal age.

@article{Chen1999MaternalSA,
  title={Maternal smoking and Down syndrome: the confounding effect of maternal age.},
  author={Christopher L.H. Chen and T J Gilbert and Janet R. Daling},
  journal={American journal of epidemiology},
  year={1999},
  volume={149 5},
  pages={
          442-6
        }
}
Inconsistent results have been reported from studies evaluating the association of maternal smoking with birth of a Down syndrome child. Control of known risk factors, particularly maternal age, has also varied across studies. By using a population-based case-control design (775 Down syndrome cases and 7,750 normal controls) and Washington State birth record data for 1984-1994, the authors examined this hypothesized association and found a crude odds ratio of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.65… Expand
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