Maternal care, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress.

@article{Liu1997MaternalCH,
  title={Maternal care, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress.},
  author={D Liu and Josie Diorio and Beth M. Tannenbaum and Christian Caldji and Darlene D. Francis and A Freedman and S. Sharma and D Pearson and Paul M. Plotsky and Michael J. Meaney},
  journal={Science},
  year={1997},
  volume={277 5332},
  pages={
          1659-62
        }
}
Variations in maternal care affect the development of individual differences in neuroendocrine responses to stress in rats. As adults, the offspring of mothers that exhibited more licking and grooming of pups during the first 10 days of life showed reduced plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone responses to acute stress, increased hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor messenger RNA expression, enhanced glucocorticoid feedback sensitivity, and decreased levels of hypothalamic… 

Variations in maternal care in infancy regulate the development of stress reactivity

Prenatal stress and long-term consequences: implications of glucocorticoid hormones

Patterns of Weaning and Adult Response to Stress

  • C. Cook
  • Psychology, Biology
    Physiology & Behavior
  • 1999

Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Adrenocortical Axis Function and Hedonic Behavior in Adult Male and Female Rats Prenatally Stressed by Maternal Food Restriction

The present experiments failed to reveal a decrease in hedonic behavior in prenatally stressed rats, and observed changes in hormone and CRH mRNA levels indicate that the gestational stress used did not result in a depression-like state in adult offspring.

Chronic Leptin Administration in Developing Rats Reduces Stress Responsiveness Partly through Changes in Maternal Behavior

The results demonstrate that the leptin signal is functional during the early developmental period and that leptin can modulate the hormonal response to stress in young rats either by a direct effect on the HPA axis or indirectly through changing some aspects of maternal behavior.
...

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