Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences

  title={Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences},
  author={Robert E. Black and Lindsay H Allen and Zulfiqar A. Bhutta and Laura E. Caulfield and Mercedes de Onis and Majid Ezzati and Colin D. Mathers and Juan A. Rivera},
  journal={The Lancet},

Global Burden of Maternal and Child Undernutrition and Micronutrient Deficiencies

Poverty, food insecurity, ignorance, lack of appropriate infant and young child feeding practices, heavy burden of infectious illnesses, and poor hygiene and sanitation are factors responsible for the high levels of maternal and child undernutrition in developing countries and can be controlled or removed by scaling up direct nutrition interventions and eliminating the root conditions.

Global micronutrient deficiencies in childhood and impact on growth and survival: challenges and opportunities.

Emerging data from community intervention trials now provide evidence that this is both tangible and can lead to alleviation of childhood undernutrition.

Micronutrients: Immunological and Infection Effects on Nutritional Status and Impact on Health in Developing Countries

Although there has been a reduction in the numbers and proportion dying, and progress toward the child survival millennium development goal (MDG4) is positive in many countries, clearly this is an unacceptable figure-especially when compared with what is possible from the single digit figures of more affluent countries.

Maternal and Child Nutrition 1 Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries

It is estimated that undernutrition in the aggregate—including fetal growth restriction, stunting, wasting, and deficiencies of vitamin A and zinc along with suboptimum breastfeeding—is a cause of 3·1 million child deaths annually or 45% of all child deaths in 2011.

Risk factors and socioeconomic inequalities in undernutrition among children 0-59 months of age in India

This study suggests that the nutrition-specific programs to encourage nutritional adequacy, diversity, reduces the nutritional burden, and growth of child’s in India should be considered.

The time to address undernutrition in infants and young children is now

While many countries have shown impressive reductions in under-five mortality since 2005, thus probably reducing these figures to some extent, undernutrition remains a major factor that is responsible for child mortality and morbidity.

Fetal and Early Childhood Undernutrition, Mortality, and Lifelong Health

Although the potential effects of improved breast-feeding and complementary feeding appear large, funding for research and greater use of existing effective interventions seems low compared with other life-saving child health interventions.

Addressing Childhood Undernutrition In Tanzania: Challenges AndOpportunities

This paper reviews strategies outside of the health sector with high potential for preventing childhood undernutrition in Tanzania and that can be translated in many developing countries.



Undernutrition as an underlying cause of child deaths associated with diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, and measles.

A significant proportion of deaths in young children worldwide is attributable to low weight-for-age, and efforts to reduce malnutrition should be a policy priority.

Effectiveness of vitamin A supplementation in the control of young child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Revised ed.

Vitamin A probably has more of an effect on the processes linked to response to infection than to those linked to resistance to infection, and does not appear to improve general morbidity but does have a beneficial effect on severe morbidity.

Extent of vitamin A deficiency among preschool children and women of reproductive age.

  • K. West
  • Medicine
    The Journal of nutrition
  • 2002
VA prophylaxis seems to be preventing the number of deficient preschool children from increasing while probably reducing rates of blindness and mortality, particularly among pregnant and lactating women.

Vitamin A deficiency

Methodology for estimating regional and global trends of child malnutrition.

Trends are uneven across regions, with some showing a need for more concerted and efficient interventions to meet the MDG of reducing levels of child malnutrition by half between 1990 and 2015.

Rethinking the “Diseases of Affluence” Paradigm: Global Patterns of Nutritional Risks in Relation to Economic Development

Age-standardized mean population levels of body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol in relation to national income, food share of household expenditure, and urbanization in a cross-country analysis indicate cardiovascular disease risks are expected to systematically shift to low-income and middle-income countries and further increase global health inequalities.

Reduced mortality among children in southern India receiving a small weekly dose of vitamin A.

The regular provision of a supplement of vitamin A to children, at a level potentially obtainable from foods, in an area where vitamin A deficiency and under-nutrition are documented public health problems contributed substantially to children's survival; mortality was reduced on average by 54 percent.

Is malnutrition declining? An analysis of changes in levels of child malnutrition since 1980.

The data presented provide a baseline for assessing progress and help identify countries and regions in need of populationwide interventions and approaches to lower child malnutrition should be based on successful nutrition programmes and policies.