Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy, Other Prenatal and Perinatal Factors, and the Risk of Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

  title={Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy, Other Prenatal and Perinatal Factors, and the Risk of Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease},
  author={Shahram Bahmanyar and Scott Montgomery and R{\"u}diger J. Weiss and Anders Ekbom},
  pages={e459 - e464}
OBJECTIVE. The causes of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease are largely unknown, but this pediatric disease seems to result from interruption of the blood supply to the proximal femur and is considered a vascular disease. Because maternal smoking during pregnancy influences fetal development and is associated with cardiovascular diseases in offspring, we hypothesized that this exposure is a risk for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and also investigated other markers of impaired fetal development and early… 

Tables from this paper

Risk factors during pregnancy and delivery for the development of Perthes’ disease, a nationwide Swedish study of 2.1 million individuals

There is a correlation between breech birth and development of Perthes’ disease and there is also correlation to suboptimal birth characteristics.

Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease and Risks for Cardiovascular Diseases and Blood Diseases

The results are consistent with the hypothesis that an insufficient blood supply to the femoral head, attributable to vascular pathologic conditions, is involved in the pathogenesis of LCPD.

Clinical and genetic characteristics of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

A better understanding of the association between LCPD and causative factors, for example, the role of hypercoagulability in osteonecrosis development, might lead to the development of improved treatments, to shorten the acute phase of the disease during childhood as well as to possibly reduce the long-term effects of osteoarthritis in adulthood.

Influence of passive smoking on the onset of Legg-Calvè-Perthes disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The relationship between passive smoking and the onset of Legg-Calvè-Perthes disease is still controversial. Therefore, we conducted the study to systematically evaluate and analyze the relationship.

A case control study to determine the association between Perthes' disease and the recalled use of tobacco during pregnancy, and biological markers of current tobacco smoke exposure

An association exists between tobacco smoke exposure and Perthes' disease but the authors remain unable to disentangle the association with socioeconomic deprivation.

Environmental Tobacco and Wood Smoke Increase the Risk of Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease

This study provides further evidence that environmental tobacco smoke is associated with an increased risk of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and exposure to wood smoke also appears to be a risk factor.

The Epidemiology and Demographics of Legg-Calvé-Perthes' Disease

LCPD can be associated with abnormalities in the coagulation cascade, including an increase in factor V Leiden mutation, low levels of protein C and/or S, and decreased antithrombin activity, and reduced levels of urinary glycosaminoglycans in the active phases of the disorder.

The Declining Incidence of Legg-Calve-Perthes’ Disease in Northern Ireland: An Epidemiological Study

The number of new cases of LCPD is decreasing over time and the epidemiological data are unchanged between 2 cohorts over a 15-year period, and this therefore supports a change within the patients' environment relating to this decline.

Abnormalities of Vascular Structure and Function in Children With Perthes Disease

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Perthes disease is a childhood precipitant to osteoarthritis of the hip, for which the etiology and mechanism are unknown. There is mounting evidence to suggest a vascular

Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in the UK: geographic and temporal trends in incidence reflecting differences in degree of deprivation in childhood.

The declining incidence, along with the geographic variation, suggests that a major etiologic determinant in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is environmental and closely linked to childhood deprivation.



Maternal smoking and fetal growth characteristics in different periods of pregnancy: the generation R study.

It is concluded that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with reduced growth in fetal head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length, and the larger effect on Femur length suggests that smoking duringregnancy affects primarily peripheral tissues.

Smoking and socio-economic status in the etiology and severity of Legg–Calvé–Perthes' disease

The presence of second-hand smoke seems to be a significant risk factor in the development of Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease and may represent the ‘unknown industrial factor’ that has been discussed.

Birth weight and Legg-Perthes disease.

  • M. MolloyB. Macmahon
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
  • 1967
Histories of seventy-four single-born white children with Legg-Perthes disease in Massachusetts in 1964 were compared with histories of a matched series of children without the disease selected from birth certificates, showing no differences between the case and comparison children.

Influence of maternal smoking on neonatal aortic intima-media thickness, serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels

Investigating the influence of maternal smoking on neonatal aortic IMT, serum IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels found neonates whose mothers smoked have significantly increased aIMT might play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in adult life.

Secondhand smoke, hypofibrinolysis, and Legg-Perthes disease.

Assessment of relationships among parental cigarette smoking during pregnancy, household smoking before diagnosis of Legg-Perthes disease, hypofibrinolysis, and thrombophilia found secondhand smoke exposure correlated inversely with the major stimulator of fibrinoelsis, stimulated tissue plasminogen activator activity.

Incidence and genetics of Legg-Perthes disease (osteochondritis deformans) in British Columbia: evidence of polygenic determination.

The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of Legg-Perthes in the Province of British Columbia, Canada, by identifying all children in whom the diagnosis was made for the first time during the period 1952-67 inclusive and to analyse for possible genetic factors.

Epidemiology of Perthes' disease.

The normal birthweight and absence of association with known prenatal influences suggest a determinant acting in early postnatal life, which points to major environmental influences in the etiology associated with poverty.

Cigarette smoking and pregnancy I: ovarian, uterine and placental effects.

Present evidence supports an adverse effect of smoking on ovarian function which is prolonged and dose-dependent, whereas there appear to be more reversible effects on implantation and ongoing pregnancy.