Mate guarding, copulation strategies and paternity in the sex-role reversed, socially polyandrous red-necked phalarope Phalaropus lobatus

@article{Schamel2004MateGC,
  title={Mate guarding, copulation strategies and paternity in the sex-role reversed, socially polyandrous red-necked phalarope Phalaropus lobatus},
  author={Douglas Schamel and Diane M. Tracy and David B. Lank and David F. Westneat},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  year={2004},
  volume={57},
  pages={110-118}
}
In a recent review, Westneat and Stewart (2003) compiled evidence that extra-pair paternity results from a three-player interaction in which sexual conflict is a potent force. Sequentially polyandrous species of birds appear to fit this idea well. Earlier breeding males may attempt to use sperm storage by females to obtain paternity in their mate’s subsequent clutches. Later-breeding males may consequently attempt to avoid sperm competition by preferring to pair with previously unmated females… 

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