Creatine kinase, energy-rich phosphates and energy metabolism in heart muscle of different vertebrates
Concentrations of high-energy phosphates and activities of key enzymes of energy metabolism were assessed in hearts from species with differing levels of cardiac power output. Positive correlations were found between resting power output and the total adenylate pool and between citrate synthase activity and the total adenylate pool. Maximum in vitro activity levels of enzymes from energy metabolism were compared with calculated resting cardiac power output and maximal cardiac power output (as reflected by total oligomycin-insensitive adenosine-triphosphatase activity). Three indexes of carbohydrate metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, and L-lactate dehydrogenase) all plateau at relatively low levels of energy demand. In contrast, enzymes required for aerobic fatty acid metabolism, (carnitine palmitoyltransferase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) and for tricarboxylic acid and electron transport (citrate synthase and cytochrome-c oxidase) show consistent increases as ATP demand is elevated. It appears that as capacity for power development by vertebrate hearts, increases across taxa, the elevated demand for ATP is met by expansion of fatty acid based aerobic metabolism and not carbohydrate metabolism.